Summer is here, and the first thing that comes to mind is “Sun, beach, sand,…”, but would protect it enough our skin? In this post we will review many of the factors that many know at the time of exposure to the Sun.
Sunlight provides us with many positive effects: stimulates the synthesis of vitamin D, promotes blood circulation, acts in the treatment of some dermatoses,…
Even in some cases stimulates the synthesis of the brain neurotransmitter responsible for mood (perhaps that is related with joy and revelry hot countries and cold countries seriousness and depression).
But what is clear is that today should take into account solar for much of the population habits are not correct.
The energy of radiation is inversely proportional to its wavelength, i.e., how much shorter is this wave length more energy has.Sunlight decomposes into different wavelengths, of which three come to planet Earth.
- UV (biological effects):depending on your wave length, we can distinguish three large areas of ultraviolet radiation:
UVC: They do not reach the Earth’s surface. They are very dangerous for man and the ozone layer in the atmosphere absorbs them.
UVB: They are very energetic. They penetrate to epidermal level and cause the tanning of the skin.
Grape: Between 30% and 50% of these rays reaching deep levels of dermis and are more harmful than the UVB because they have less power. They are responsible for the aging of the skin and melanoma.
- Visible (light effect):penetrate into the hypodermis.
- infrared (heating effect):they penetrate to the hypodermis and probably also cause vasodilation.
If we said that how much shorter is the most intense wave is energy, UVC rays are the most energetic, but stops them the ozone layer, which is located approximately 30 km of distance from the Earth, but we all know that the ozone layer is seriously threatened by emissions of CFCS and that the general trend observed is a decline of 0.5% a year. One more reason to go carefully with the Sun.
Some of the factors that influence on the action of sun exposure are:
Time of day: the solar radiation intensity is maximum between 12 o’clock and 16., (official).
Altitude: The risk of scalding increases with height. Each 300 m, up 4% be able eritematico ultraviolet radiation.
Geographical location: the solar radiation is more intense near the Ecuador since that falls vertically on the ground.
Season: summer solar radiation comes with all his energy.
Water, snow, sand: snow (80%), sand (25%) and herb (10%) or water reflect radiation making its effects be added to impinge directly on the skin.
Do you know that it is the factor of Sun protection (SPF)? The FPS indicates the number of times that the photoresist increases the natural defense of skin erythema or redness prior to the burn, so it is giving us information about protection against UVB.
Each person must know their special sensitivity to sun exposure and know the time that can be exposed to the Sun without getting burnt. Although there is no absolute rule for choosing an appropriate index of protection, should take into account the following aspects:
In the first exhibition never used one less than 15 FPS .
Increase the FPS in clear skin especially skin types I and II, in children, in water sports and mountain, in pregnant women or other groups of risk facing the Sun on days of high solar intensity or prolonged exposure times.
We must remember well that the measures to protect us from the Sun are few.
Although the color of the tanned skin is assimilated to good health, the Sun can cause disorders, two types of disorders: thevisible and the invisible.
After sun exposure, burns are the most obvious effects, but there are others.
Infrared rays give sensation of heat but not burned.
The UVA rays cause the phenomenon of immediate pigmentation. Hours later, UVB rays cause Erythema Actinic. Days later, the stratum corneum is enlarged and intensifies the melanitica pigmentation.
People who have abused the Sun can experience, with time, spots on the skin, wrinkles and cataracts, and the long skin cancer or superficial tumors.
In the long run, UVB rays are absorbed by the DNA and cause alterations in genome. UV rays are also absorbed and become radical free, that alter the genetic material and saturate the defensive systems of the skin. Therefore, when solar exposures are excessive and guards are overwhelmed, the abnormal cells proliferate and tend to form carcinoma or melanoma.
According to estimates Of the United Nations programme for the environment (UNEP), each year occur worldwide more than 2 million skin cancers other than melanoma and 200,000 malignant melanomas.
FAIR-SKINNED PEOPLE ARE MORE LIKELY TO SUFFER CANCER OF SKIN BY THE RELATIVE ABSENCE OF PIGMENTATION OF THE SKIN. According to different clinical studies, use a sunscreen 15 during the first 18 years of life can reduce up to 78% the risk of skin cancer.
Since we are born, we all have a capacity of adaptation to the Sun. This is our phototype. Much smaller this capability (have less people with fair skin, or pelirojas persons), more reduced will be the ability to withstand the Sun.
Water resistant shields have the ability to stay in the skin when it comes in contact with a moist environment (the water of the sea, swimming pools, or sweat).
People with light skin have less ability to support Sun
There are two possible classifications for water-resistant products:
Water-resistant: when the sunscreen has not lost the protective capacity (its FPS) after 40 minutes of immersion in water.
Waterproof: when the photoresist acts for more than 80 minutes after immersion in water.
The measures to protect us from the radiation are few, but there are different ways to do it. UV sun radiation can be treated using clothing adequate, with hats and, above all, by properly applying sunscreen on skin creams.
To protect your eyes when we exposed to the Sun, it is necessary to use sunglasses with crystals that absorb UV radiation.
When other means of protection is not available, it is advisable to use sunscreens for broad-spectrum (UVA and UVB), and reduce the time of exposure to the Sun, rather than lengthen it. Topical application of Sun protection creams is the most used to absorb UVB rays, but some products do not efficiently absorb UVA radiations of longer wavelength. If you use a sun protection cream, you should choose a high protection factor, and being aware of that is used to protect themselves from the Sun, and not to get a Tan.
The reflective properties of the surface of the ground affect the UV exposure. Grass, Earth and water reflect less than 10% of the incident UV radiation. However, fresh snow reflects almost 80%, and the sand between 10% and 25%, which indicates thatexposure of bathers and skiers to UV radiation is most intense.
To obtain optimum performance from the use of a sunscreen, it is necessary to follow four basic rules:
Apply the sunscreen at home, never on the beach or in the pool.
Do well on the skin dry.
Apply it 30 minutes before exposure to the Sun.
Also respected these rules, it will be necessary to take into account the following recommendations:
- avoid water sprays during exhibitions.
2. avoid perfumes and alcoholic colonies containing plant essences, because they are photosensitizing.
3. choose the most suitable photoresist according to the skin type.
4 using it, even when it is cloudy.
5. do not expose to the Sun between 11 and 15 hours.
6 protect your head with a hat or cap with visor;the eyes with appropriate glasses, and lips with lip balm.
7 be in motion.Not advisable to is lie in the Sun and staying motionless for hours.
8. drink water or fluids to avoid dehydration.
9. certain medications can cause reactions to exposure to the Sun.
We must remember that we must begin by a high FPS, especially the first week of sun exposure, and go by lowering it in the following days.
It is important to teach children to protect themselves from the Sun since childhood, because the effects of solar radiation are cumulative and irreversible. The skin of children differs with respect to the skin of adults and must be given adequate protection.
So we will have to take into account that:
It must not expose children to the sun before the age of 3.
They have to avoid the Central hours of the day.
You must use a special children’s Sun protection.
We must periodically renew the product, even if it is long in the water.
It is good to protect the head with caps and shirts with body if you have very white and sensitive skin.
We must make them to drink plenty of water.
You have to go to the doctor or consult your pharmacist at the slightest sign of reaction or strange skin symptoms.
Source: Ministry of health and consumption.