Algeria Directory

Algeria is located in North Africa and is the largest country in Africa by land area. It is bordered by the Mediterranean Sea to the north, Tunisia and Libya to the northeast, Niger to the southeast, Mali and Mauritania to the southwest, Western Sahara to the west, and Morocco to the northwest.



Algeria has a diverse climate that varies significantly from the north to the south. The coastal region enjoys a Mediterranean climate with mild, wet winters and hot, dry summers. Moving inland, the climate becomes more arid, and the Sahara Desert in the south features extreme aridity and variability.


The diverse climates of Algeria support a wide variety of fauna. In the northern regions, common species include the red fox, wild boar, and the Barbary macaque. The Sahara Desert hosts species adapted to arid conditions, such as the fennec fox, the addax antelope, and various reptiles.

Longest Rivers

  • Chelif River: The longest river in Algeria, running predominantly through the northern part of the country.
  • Oued Saoura: An important river system in the western Sahara.

Highest Mountains

  • Mount Tahat: The highest peak in Algeria, located in the Ahaggar Mountains, it reaches 2,908 meters above sea level.
  • Mount Chelia: The second-highest mountain, found in the Aurès Range, it reaches 2,328 meters.


Prehistory to Roman Era

Algeria’s history begins with early human habitation evidenced by remains found at Ain Hanech. The region was later known for the Numidians, followed by significant Roman influence, as seen in the ruins of Timgad and Djémila.

Islamic Conquests to Ottoman Rule

After the fall of the Roman Empire, the region was influenced by various Islamic dynasties, starting with the Umayyad Caliphate. Later, it became a part of the Ottoman Empire, serving as an important base along the Barbary Coast.

French Colonial Era to Independence

French colonization began in 1830 and profoundly affected Algeria’s societal fabric. Independence was achieved after a prolonged and bloody struggle, culminating in 1962.

Modern Algeria

Post-independence, Algeria has navigated a path through socialism, significant political upheaval during the Civil War in the 1990s, and ongoing challenges related to governance, economic diversification, and social stability.


Algeria’s population is primarily Arab-Berber, and Arabic is the official language, with Berber also recognized as a national language. The population is predominantly Muslim. Algeria has seen significant urbanization, though substantial segments of the population still retain ties to more traditional, rural lifestyles.

Administrative Divisions

Algeria is divided into 48 provinces or wilayas, each governed from a provincial capital. These provinces are further divided into daïras (districts) and communes. Major provinces include:

  • Algiers Province: Capital region with a population of about 3 million.
  • Oran Province: Western coastal province with roughly 1.5 million residents.
  • Constantine Province: Northeastern province with approximately 1 million inhabitants. The populations of other provinces vary widely, reflecting the geographic and economic diversity of the country.

Largest Cities by Population

  • Algiers: 3 million
  • Oran: About 1.5 million
  • Constantine: Around 1 million
  • Annaba: 500,000
  • Blida: 450,000
  • Batna: 400,000
  • Djelfa: 350,000
  • Sétif: 340,000
  • Sidi Bel Abbès: 330,000
  • Biskra: 320,000

Education Systems


Education in Algeria is mandatory and free up to the secondary level. The government has made significant efforts to improve literacy and educational infrastructure.

Top Universities

  • University of Algiers
  • University of Science and Technology – Houari Boumediene
  • University of Oran



Algeria has several international airports, the largest and most significant being:

  • Houari Boumediene Airport (Algiers)
  • Oran International Airport
  • Constantine International Airport


The country has an extensive railway network that spans over 4,000 kilometers, connecting major cities and regions across the north.


Algeria has one of the largest road networks in Africa, totaling over 100,000 kilometers, including several major motorways that link the north coastal region with interior cities.

Major Ports

  • Port of Algiers: The largest and most important for international trade.
  • Port of Oran: Major western Mediterranean shipping hub.
  • Port of Annaba: Crucial for iron ore export.

Country Facts

  • Population: 43 million
  • Capital: Algiers
  • Languages: Arabic (official), Berber (Tamazight)
  • Major Religion: Islam
  • Currency: Algerian Dinar (DZD)
  • ISO Country Codes: DZ, DZA, 012
  • International Calling Code: +213
  • Top-Level Domain: .dz

This detailed exploration highlights Algeria’s rich historical layers, diverse geography, vibrant demography, and evolving modern dynamics as the largest country in Africa and a key player in the Mediterranean and Arab world.