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Kazakhstan Old History

 

Nomadic clan people have lived in ancient times in the area that today constitutes Kazakhstan. In the 16th century, a clan federation emerged that laid the foundation for a Kazakh nationality. From the 19th century, Russians began to colonize the west. After a civil war, in 1920, Russian Bolsheviks were able to proclaim the area as an autonomous republic in Russia.

The area that constitutes today's Kazakhstan was inhabited in the past by, among other things, shootings, an Iranian people's group. Turkmen have been there at least since the 500s, probably earlier. The old Silk Road (a system of trade routes through Asia) had offshoots through the southern part of the area and around the Syr-Darja River a flourishing urban culture from the 9th century emerged.

  • AbbreviationFinder.org: Comprehensive guide to and popular abbreviations of Kazakhstan, covering history, economy, and social conditions.

However, the cities were dismantled in the 13th century, when Mongolian ruler Genghis Khan advanced through Central Asia. The empire of the Djingi khan was shattered after his death in 1227, and in the following centuries various khans - Turkish and Mongol chiefs - fought for power in the area.

In the 16th century, the most important Turkish people groups united under the leader Kasym khan. Although this covenant, the kazak word, did not last long, from this time you can speak of the kazaks as a special people group.

The western neighbors of the Kazakhs, the Tatars, had fallen under Russian rule in the 16th century. In the 18th century, the Kazakhs sought Moscow's protection from Mongols and other expansive neighbors. Russian Cossacks built fortifications in the north and in the west, but outside these, life on the steppe continued largely without Russian intervention until the early 19th century.

Old History of Kazakhstan

Thereafter, the rulers of Moscow began to quickly and hard-handedly organize the Kazakhs under Russian administration. At the same time, Russian troops were pushing south across Kazakh territory, towards the areas that the Russians considered to be Central Asia and to Afghanistan. Kazakh revolts were fought off, and the Russians deposed the Khans.

After the abolition of living property in Russia in 1861, landless Slavic families arrived to take possession of "vacant" Kazakh land. At the same time, the nomads made money selling horses to the Russians. Some Kazakh youth were also allowed to study at Russian and Tatar schools.

At the beginning of the 20th century, Slavic immigrants could be counted in the hundreds of thousands, and more and more came every year via the railway built from the Ural Mountains. Laws were passed to transfer land that the Kazakhs "did not need" to the settlers. The nomads were given less space to drive their herds on the long hikes between summer and winter visits. The distress grew among the Kazakhs and created a breeding ground for nationalism.

Tatar intellectuals spread ideas about self-government and about cohesion between different Turkish and Muslim peoples. The nationalist "young Turks" in Turkey appeared as a role model for many Kazakhs and other Central Asians.

The Central Asian Muslims did not have to do Russian military service, but in 1916, during the First World War, the Tsar decided that they would be obliged to work. For the Kazakhs, it became the signal for an uprising that also spread to the neighboring people. Some fighting was still going on when the October Revolution broke out in Russia in 1917.

Kaos characterized Kazakhstan in the ensuing civil war. Kazakh nationalists wanted to form their own state but failed when they were divided and mainly relied on the Kazakh aristocracy.

The Bolsheviks had no strong support in Kazakhstan, but when they had won the Russian civil war, in August 1920, they were able to proclaim an "Kyrgyz" autonomous republic as part of Russia. (The Russians did not then distinguish between Kazakhs and Kyrgyz). The Communist Party became the only permitted party. After a few years, the Republic split into two: Kazakhstan and Kyrgyzstan.

2013

October

Prison for salafists

Nine men are sentenced to prison for between 6 and 23 years for belonging to a group that spread the prohibited Salafist interpretation of Islam and for urging terrorist acts.

September

Chinese state visit

Chinese President Xi Jinping visits Kazakhstan and concludes agreement on Chinese purchase of a stake in the large oil field of Kashagan.

August

Prison for suspected terrorists

Six men are sentenced to prison for between six and ten years for organizing a terrorist group, planning terrorist acts and conspiring to kill security officers and senior officials. According to prosecutors, their goal should have been to establish an Islamic caliphate in Kazakhstan.

July

Criminal suspected oligarchs are arrested in France

Kazakh oligarch Muchtar Abljazov is arrested in France on suspicion of gross embezzlement from the bank BTA he previously owned. Abljazov says the charges against him are politically based.

June

Kidnapping charges against the regime

The oligarch Muchtar Abljazov (see November 2012) accuses his exile President Nazarbayev's regime of kidnapping his wife and daughter after being deported from Italy to Kazakhstan. One of Abljazov's allies, opposition politician Muratbek Ketebayev, is arrested in Poland at the request of the Kazakh authorities.

 
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