Nomadic clan people have lived in ancient
times in the area that today constitutes Kazakhstan. In
the 16th century, a clan federation emerged that laid
the foundation for a Kazakh nationality. From the 19th
century, Russians began to colonize the west. After a
civil war, in 1920, Russian Bolsheviks were able to
proclaim the area as an autonomous republic in Russia.
The area that constitutes today's Kazakhstan was
inhabited in the past by, among other things, shootings,
an Iranian people's group. Turkmen have been there at
least since the 500s, probably earlier. The old Silk
Road (a system of trade routes through Asia) had
offshoots through the southern part of the area and
around the Syr-Darja River a flourishing urban culture
from the 9th century emerged.
Comprehensive guide to and popular abbreviations of Kazakhstan, covering history, economy, and social conditions.
However, the cities were dismantled in the 13th
century, when Mongolian ruler Genghis Khan advanced
through Central Asia. The empire of the Djingi khan was
shattered after his death in 1227, and in the following
centuries various khans - Turkish and Mongol chiefs -
fought for power in the area.
In the 16th century, the most important Turkish
people groups united under the leader Kasym khan.
Although this covenant, the kazak word, did not last
long, from this time you can speak of the kazaks as a
special people group.
The western neighbors of the Kazakhs, the Tatars, had
fallen under Russian rule in the 16th century. In the
18th century, the Kazakhs sought Moscow's protection
from Mongols and other expansive neighbors. Russian
Cossacks built fortifications in the north and in the
west, but outside these, life on the steppe continued
largely without Russian intervention until the early
Thereafter, the rulers of Moscow began to quickly and
hard-handedly organize the Kazakhs under Russian
administration. At the same time, Russian troops were
pushing south across Kazakh territory, towards the areas
that the Russians considered to be Central Asia and to
Afghanistan. Kazakh revolts were fought off, and the
Russians deposed the Khans.
After the abolition of living property in Russia in
1861, landless Slavic families arrived to take
possession of "vacant" Kazakh land. At the same time,
the nomads made money selling horses to the Russians.
Some Kazakh youth were also allowed to study at Russian
and Tatar schools.
At the beginning of the 20th century, Slavic
immigrants could be counted in the hundreds of
thousands, and more and more came every year via the
railway built from the Ural Mountains. Laws were passed
to transfer land that the Kazakhs "did not need" to the
settlers. The nomads were given less space to drive
their herds on the long hikes between summer and winter
visits. The distress grew among the Kazakhs and created
a breeding ground for nationalism.
Tatar intellectuals spread ideas about
self-government and about cohesion between different
Turkish and Muslim peoples. The nationalist "young
Turks" in Turkey appeared as a role model for many
Kazakhs and other Central Asians.
The Central Asian Muslims did not have to do Russian
military service, but in 1916, during the First World
War, the Tsar decided that they would be obliged to
work. For the Kazakhs, it became the signal for an
uprising that also spread to the neighboring people.
Some fighting was still going on when the October
Revolution broke out in Russia in 1917.
Kaos characterized Kazakhstan in the ensuing civil
war. Kazakh nationalists wanted to form their own state
but failed when they were divided and mainly relied on
the Kazakh aristocracy.
The Bolsheviks had no strong support in Kazakhstan,
but when they had won the Russian civil war, in August
1920, they were able to proclaim an "Kyrgyz" autonomous
republic as part of Russia. (The Russians did not then
distinguish between Kazakhs and Kyrgyz). The Communist
Party became the only permitted party. After a few
years, the Republic split into two: Kazakhstan and
Prison for salafists
Nine men are sentenced to prison for between 6 and 23 years for belonging to
a group that spread the prohibited Salafist interpretation of Islam and for
urging terrorist acts.
Chinese state visit
Chinese President Xi Jinping visits Kazakhstan and concludes agreement on
Chinese purchase of a stake in the large oil field of Kashagan.
Prison for suspected terrorists
Six men are sentenced to prison for between six and ten years for organizing
a terrorist group, planning terrorist acts and conspiring to kill security
officers and senior officials. According to prosecutors, their goal should have
been to establish an Islamic caliphate in Kazakhstan.
Criminal suspected oligarchs are arrested in France
Kazakh oligarch Muchtar Abljazov is arrested in France on suspicion of gross
embezzlement from the bank BTA he previously owned. Abljazov says the charges
against him are politically based.
Kidnapping charges against the regime
The oligarch Muchtar Abljazov (see November 2012) accuses
his exile President Nazarbayev's regime of kidnapping his wife and daughter
after being deported from Italy to Kazakhstan. One of Abljazov's allies,
opposition politician Muratbek Ketebayev, is arrested in Poland at the request
of the Kazakh authorities.