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Kyrgyzstan Old History

 

The origin of the Kyrgyz is not entirely clear. However, the researchers know that Osj was an important marketplace on the Silk Road route during antiquity. During the 1400s and 1500s, Kyrgyz clans gathered in an independent but short-lived kingdom on land that today belongs to Kyrgyzstan. The clans were then ruled for a long time by various foreign rulers before the Russians took over the area in the 19th century. Under Soviet leader Josef Stalin, the nomads in the 1930s were forced to become peasants and workers.

  • AbbreviationFinder.org: Comprehensive guide to and popular abbreviations of Kyrgyzstan, covering history, economy, and social conditions.

Scientists believe that Kyrgyz ancestors lived on the upper reaches of the Jenisei River in the Altaj Mountains in southern Siberia. Eventually, they left the area and headed toward the Tien Shan Mountains in southeastern Kyrgyzstan.

In the 8th century AD, the Kyrgyz conquered the Uighurs' kingdom in present-day Mongolia, but the kingdom was defeated in the 13th century by Mongol ruler Djinghi's khan. The Kyrgyz who survived the ravages of the Mongols soon joined him.

In the 15th and 16th centuries, various Kyrgyz clans were united and formed an independent kingdom in the area that is today Kyrgyzstan. However, the kingdom became brief. The Kyrgyz again split into clans under local rulers, who in turn were ruled by foreigners, including Mongols, Manchurians, Kalmuckers and Kazakhs.

Old History of Kyrgyzstan

The Russians invade Kokand

At the entrance of the Russians in the mid-19th century, the area belonged to the Kokand khanate (khanate is an area ruled by a leader called khan). Many Kyrgyz clan chiefs, so-called Manap, voluntarily submitted to the Russians, as they were dissatisfied with hard tax pressure from Kokand. In 1852, Russian troops captured Pishpek (today's Bishkek), which was then an important fortress for the Kokand khanate. Kyrgyzstan became part of the Russian government Turkestan in 1867.

During the latter part of the 19th century, many Russians moved to the area. Often these were people who were considered to be unfavorable to those in power and were therefore forcibly deported. The settlers needed arable land and much of the Kyrgyz nomad's pasture land was cultivated. In protest, the Kyrgyz made a rebellion attempt in 1898.

Since the Russians began to force the people of Turkestan into military service in the Russian army, a new uprising broke out in 1916. Thousands of Russians and Kyrgyz were killed and at least 150,000 Kyrgyz sought shelter in China - the so-called "main flight", ürkün. Resistance to the Russians flared up again in 1917 in connection with the October Revolution, when Russian Bolsheviks tried to seize power in Central Asia. Many Kyrgyz joined Basmati, an Islamic guerrilla movement that for several years resisted the Bolsheviks in almost all of Central Asia.

Soviet Republic - nomads become residents

In 1918, Kyrgyzstan was incorporated into the autonomous Soviet Republic of Turkestan. The administration was entirely managed by the Russians and the forced redemption of the Kyrgyz land took off. Kyrgyz political parties and organizations were banned.

The Soviet Union was formally formed in 1922. During "the new economic policy" 1921-1927, some land was returned to the Kyrgyz and the harsh policy towards national features and against Islam was somewhat mitigated. In 1924, Turkestan was dissolved and several autonomous districts were formed, including a Kyrgyz-Kazakh. Kyrgyz was allowed to hold leading positions in the administration and the nomads could relatively undisturbed continue their traditional life with livestock management as a base.

In 1926, Kyrgyzstan became its own autonomous Soviet republic and in 1936 Kyrgyz ASSR was elevated to the Union Republic. The capital Pisjpek was renamed Frunze, after a Bolshevik with Moldovan roots. The name for the Kyrgyz was both foreign and difficult, since the f-sound does not occur in Kyrgyz.

After 1928, Soviet policy was tightened. Within the framework of the dictator Josef Stalin's collectivization of agriculture throughout the Soviet Union, the nomads were forced to reside. Extensive purges took place within the administration and the Communist Party. The nationally-minded elite suffered cruel persecution and was replaced by Stalin faithful people. The Russian language was presented at the expense of the Kyrgyz. In a short time, an animal-loving nomadic people was transformed into Soviet kolchos farmers and industrial workers.

2010

December

Troubled government formation

The proposed tripartite government will not be realized when Parliament rejects the leader of the Fatherland of Tekebaev as President. His western-friendly attitude is considered to be a strain in relations with Russia. Following further negotiations, Atambayev presents a new coalition government consisting of the Social Democrats, Bakijev's supporters in the Fatherland, and the Republican Party, whose leader Ömürbek Babanov was formerly a Social Democrat. The three government parties agree that good relations with Russia are central, but they are far from domestic politics.

November

The president is being prosecuted

Bakijev is facing trial in his absence, charged with mass murder in connection with the riots in Bishkek in April 2010. Among 27 other defendants are several militants and Bakijev's brother, who was previously the head of the security service, as well as the deposed Prime Minister Usenov. All but two prosecutors are absent when the trial begins.

Social Democrat tries to form government

President Otunbajeva assigns his party friend, Social Democrats leader Almazbek Atambayev, to form a majority government. After difficult negotiations, a tripartite coalition is formed by the Social Democrats, the Republican Party and the Foster Country. It is meant to be the next government.

October

Imprisoned journalist ill

Detained ethnic Uzbek editor Ulugbek Abdusalamov is reported to be severely ill after suffering from brain hemorrhage in the detention center. Amnesty International describes Abdusalamov as a political prisoner of conscience.

The party leaders are seeking Russian support

Country leader Omurbek Tekebajev stays at home when the other four party leaders travel to Moscow for political talks immediately after the election. Their journey underscores Russia's strong political influence over Kyrgyzstan.

Parliamentary elections setback for the government

When parliamentary elections are held, five parties will have a seat in the Assembly. Bakijev's Party of the Fatherland gets 28 seats, the Social Democrats 26 seats, Dignity wins 25 seats, the Republican Party 23 seats and the Fatherland gets 18 seats. The election result is a hardship for the transitional government.

September

Jail sentences after the unrest are criticized

Five uz cups are sentenced to life imprisonment for their roles in the outbreak of violence in the Fergana Valley (see June 2010). One of them is the journalist Azimjon Askarov, who was tortured in the detention. The trial is criticized for being biased, as the vast majority of victims of the violence are the uz cup. International human rights organizations demand that life sentences be lifted.

July

New temporary president

Transitional government leader Roza Otunbajeva becomes acting president until the October 2011 presidential elections.

June

Yes to new constitution

In a referendum, more than 90 percent of the participants voted in favor of a new constitution that would make the country a parliamentary democracy. The president's power is limited to the benefit of the government and parliament. Political parties based solely on ethnic or religious affiliation are prohibited (for more on the constitution, see Political system).

Hundreds killed in ethnic conflict

The situation in the Fergana Valley is deteriorating rapidly. About 470 people are killed in the outbreak of violence, thousands are injured and many buildings are burnt down in Osh and Jalalabad and surrounding areas. The majority of victims are ethnic uz cups. Many point out that Kyrgyz are deliberately trying to expel them, so-called ethnic cleansing. Witnesses describe how youth gangs attack Uzbek neighborhoods with automatic weapons, metal pipes and knives. They set fire to buildings and fire. Security forces seize thousands - most uz cups. Among those arrested are the ethnic Uzbek journalists Azimjon Askarov and Ulugbek Abdusalomov.

May

Unrest in the Fergana Valley

The new government has difficulty gaining control of southern Kyrgyzstan. Public buildings in the Fergana Valley are stormed by Bakijev's supporters. Victims of death are required when the authorities try to regain control. The unrest triggered violence between Kyrgyz and the Uzbek. The government faces an emergency permit and a nightly curfew in the Fergana Valley.

April

Ethnic conflict erupts

In the area around Bishkek, Kyrgyz take violence over land in villages where Russians or Turkish-speaking Mescheter dominate. Mescheter gets his homes looted and burnt down. Several people are said to have been beaten and killed.

The president flies abroad and resigns

Bakiyev flees to Kazakhstan, where he announces his departure, and then gets a sanctuary in Belarus. He accuses Russia of being behind the uprising.

Provisional government is formed

The opposition forms a transitional government led by former Foreign Minister Roza Otunbajeva.

Demonstrations are driving the president away

Demolitions erupt between protesters and police in Bishkek since several opposition leaders have been arrested. Over a day, over 80 people are killed and upwards of 1,000 are injured. Bakijev flees to southern Kyrgyzstan, where he has his stronghold.

January

Prison for the opposition leader

Opposition leader Ismail Isakov, who was previously Bakijev's defense minister, is sentenced to eight years in prison for corruption. The ruling triggers hunger strikes among oppositionists. The EU is concerned about the civil rights deficiencies in Kyrgyzstan.

 
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