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Luxembourg Old History

 

Today's Luxembourg, for many centuries, alternated under French, German, Spanish and Austrian rulers. At the Vienna Congress in 1815, Luxembourg was granted Grand Duchy status and in 1867 the country's independence was confirmed. During the 20th century, Luxembourg's wealth was founded through the growth of the steel industry.

Celts, Romans and Franks have inhabited the area that is today Luxembourg. In the 9th century AD, a county was founded around the present capital. The county was included early in the German-Roman Empire, but in the 1300s became an independent duchy. Various rulers then replaced each other. In the 17th century, Luxembourg was forced to resign its southernmost part to France and in the 19th century areas east of Prussia and areas west of Belgium were abandoned.

  • AbbreviationFinder.org: Comprehensive guide to and popular abbreviations of Luxembourg, covering history, economy, and social conditions.

At the Vienna Congress, which was held between Europe's great powers after the Napoleonic Wars, it was decided that Luxembourg would become a grand duchy in human resources union with the Netherlands. This meant that the Dutch king was head of state but that Luxembourg was otherwise independent. In Belgium's liberation from Dutch supremacy in 1830, the Belgians occupied the whole of Luxembourg with the exception of the capital.

Old History of Luxembourg

Luxembourg's borders are being drawn

Their present borders were given to Luxembourg by a treaty in London in 1839 between the then European great powers, with the western half of the country acceding to Belgium. From 1842 to 1919 Luxembourg was a member of the German Customs Union, though without any political connection to Germany. Then the Duchy came to orient its economic policy westward.

At a conference in London in 1867, Luxembourg was declared an independent state with "eternal neutrality". Not until the death of King William III in 1890 was the staff union with the Netherlands terminated and the Grand Duchy passed to a German branch of the same family, the house Nassau.

Towards the end of the 19th century, mining of the country's major iron ore assets began, which laid the foundation for a successful steel industry.

The Germans occupied Luxembourg during the First World War 1914-1918. Grand Duchess Marie-Adelīde, who was perceived as German-friendly, had to leave after the war and was succeeded in 1919 by her sister Charlotte. At the same time, a new constitution was adopted which introduced the introduction of democracy and universal suffrage.

When the Germans again occupied the country during the Second World War (1939-1945), Charlotte went into exile in the United Kingdom.

2017

March

Luxleaks judgments are alleviated

March 15th

Following a nearly month-long new trial, the penalty for both French whistleblowers and accountants lowered in the so-called Luxleaks deal is lowered (see June 2016). The fines are for both, but Antoine Deltour is now given six months' conditional imprisonment and Raphael Halet does not have to go to prison. For the journalist Edouard Perrin, the liberating sentence remains.

 
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