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Madagascar Old History

 

Madagascar's population are descendants of immigrants from both the African continent and the present-day Indonesia and the Arab countries. Both British and French tried to colonize the island in the 19th century and it was the French who emerged victorious from that power struggle.

It is not known when and how the first people came to Madagascar. Probably one or more groups of people from the area that today make up Indonesia emigrated sometime during the first centuries after Christ. They probably traveled along the coast of India via the Arabian Peninsula to the east coast of Africa, where they mingled with the indigenous population. Eventually, the settlers left the mainland and made their way to Madagascar.

  • AbbreviationFinder.org: Comprehensive guide to and popular abbreviations of Madagascar, covering history, economy, and social conditions.

Signs that immigrants have taken this route are, among other things, that some East African customs and a particular type of East African cattle are scattered on the island. The earliest remains of villages date back to the 7th century. The high plateau was populated around the year 1000. During the European Middle Ages, Arabs built small trading stations on the west coast and the north. From the beginning of the 16th century, Madagascar was visited sporadically by Europeans.

During the 18th century several larger and smaller kingdoms were formed. At the end of the century, the King of the Merino people Andrianampoinimerina united the four kingdoms on the central high plateau and then began to expand its territory. Thus, the economic and political dominance of the marina began. The following merino kings succeeded in subjugating large parts of the island, initially with the help of weapons which they exchanged from Europeans to slaves.

Old History of Madagascar

In the early 19th century British missionaries came to Antananarivo, which had then become the capital. The British began teaching the upper class in English and translated the Bible into the local language Malagasy (Malagasy). A number of Frenchmen made close contacts with the court and supported the building of a Catholic church.

Queen Ranavalona I (regent 1828-1861) tried to stop foreign influence and the intrusion of the new religion by banning the Europeans. When the Queen died in 1861, however, the door to the outside world was opened at the gable. Both France and Britain wanted to colonize the island. The dispute was resolved by a treaty in which France gained the supremacy of Madagascar against Britain being able to take control of the island of Zanzibar (now part of Tanzania). Madagascar became French protectorate in 1895 and colony in 1896.

During the First World War, Madagascans who served as soldiers in the French army came into contact with socialist ideas. Among them, a nationalist movement emerged. At first they demanded that the Madagascans should be granted French citizenship, but in the end they demanded independence. From 1946 Madagascar was given the right to send representatives to the National Assembly in Paris. The following year, a riot broke out and the French were brutally beaten - some 80,000 people were killed.

In 1956, universal suffrage was introduced and Madagascar became an independent state under peaceful conditions in June 1960. The French feared that conflicts would flare up if the Merino people regained power and had therefore encouraged the coastal people, côtiers, to form Madagascar's Social Democratic Party led by Philibert Tsiranana. At independence, he was elected the country's first president. Tsiranana was French-friendly and many French could maintain their assets and operations in the country. French companies continued to dominate the trade and France was allowed to retain its military bases.

2012

August

Elections will be held in 2013

Without the domestic political conflict still being resolved, the Election Commission announces that presidential elections will be held in May 2013 and parliamentary elections in July of the same year.

July

Soldier mutiny is knocked down

A soldier's myth goes down after a few hours. Faithful soldiers storm the facility near the capital's international airport, where the Mysterists entrenched themselves and killed their leader, a corporal. The motifs of the myths for the revolt are unclear.

Rajoelina and Ravalomanana meet

For the first time since the 2009 coup, Rajoelina and his representative Ravalomanana meet to try to resolve the country's political crisis. The meeting will take place in Seychelles under the leadership of the President of South Africa. The regional cooperation organization SADC has given them both a deadline until July 31 to agree on a timetable for general elections and a return to democratic rule. Despite the pressure, the meeting did not produce any results.

January

Ravalomanana's party leaves the government

Ravalomanana's party says it is leaving the unity government because the president has been banned from returning to the country from exile in South Africa. Authorities closed the airspace of his aircraft.

 
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