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Mali Old History

 

2,000 years ago, several state formations began to take shape around the Niger River. The northwestern part of today's Mali was from the 6th century in Ghana. During the 13th century, the kingdom of Mali emerged in the districts surrounding Bamako. The Mali kingdom operated caravan trading across the Sahara and Islam gradually became the dominant religion. In 1545 the capital of the kingdom was conquered by the Kingdom of Songhai. During the second half of the 19th century, French colonizers began to push east from the coast. The French gradually defeated the local rulers.

The first known traces of human settlements in the area of ​​today's Mali date from the Stone Age. There are remains of hunter cultures that are about 12,000 years old. More permanent settlements were built around 8,000 years ago.

  • AbbreviationFinder.org: Comprehensive guide to and popular abbreviations of Mali, covering history, economy, and social conditions.

During the African Iron Age, which began in the first century of our era, several state formations began to take shape around the Niger River. Northwestern part of today's Mali was from the 600s in the mighty Ghanaian kingdom which was raised by the Soninke people and had its heyday between the 700s and 1000s.

During the 13th century, the even more powerful kingdom of Mali emerged in the tracts surrounding the country's present capital Bamako in the southwest. The core of the Mali kingdom was the Malinque people, who now live in several West African countries. In the 1300s, the empire reached its greatest extent, from the Atlantic coast in the west to present-day Nigeria in the east. To the north, the kingdom extended deep into the Sahara Desert. Mali conducted caravan trading across the Sahara, including the Muslim kingdoms in North Africa. Islam gradually became the dominant religion among the rulers and traders in the Mali kingdom.

Old History of Mali

Mali began to weaken in the early 15th century and in 1545 the capital was conquered by Songhai, a Muslim royal dynasty with its center in the city of Gao in the eastern part of present-day Mali. Songhai became bigger and more powerful than the Mali kingdom. A military fleet guarded the Niger River. The administration was expanded and large areas of land were cultivated. Timbuktu became a religious and cultural center with 100,000 inhabitants.

In 1591, Muslim forces from the Morocco area invaded. It was the beginning to the end of the great kingdoms of West Africa. A long period of dissolution and disorder followed. Caravan traffic through the desert was lost in importance and Mali ended up in the backwater as the traders searched for the coasts. At the same time, Islam gained increased influence in the region through wars between Muslims and non-Muslim African people.

During the second half of the 19th century, French colonizers began to penetrate east from Senegal on the west coast of Africa. The French gradually defeated the local rulers of Mali and at the turn of the century, French Sudan, as the French called the area, came to be incorporated into the colony of French West Africa. By tax collection, the population was forced into money management. The peasants were ordered to grow peanuts, rubber and cotton for export.

In 1946, a political party was formed in Bamako that turned against French colonial politics. Among the founders was Modibo Ke´ta, who would become Free Mali's first president. In 1958, French Sudan became an autonomous republic within the French Commonwealth. The following year it merged with Senegal in the Mali federation, but only two months after independence in 1960, the federation was dissolved in two independent states.

2010

September

independence Celebration

Mali celebrates the 50th anniversary of the country's independence from France.

July

Franco-Mauritian effort

Mauritania and France jointly carry out an operation into Mali to try to free a Frenchman taken hostage by Aqim. The effort fails, and a day later, the Islamist group announces that the Frenchman has been executed for revenge.

June

Appeal against Aqim

Military from Mali and Mauritania jointly strike a camp in western Mali, where the Islamist group has long been active. The military uses, among other things, attack aircraft against the terrorist stronghold, and then states that the camp has been knocked out and control of the area has been regained. The number of dead and wounded is unknown.

May

The United States participates in military exercise

The United States conducts "Operation Flintlock" together with Mali, Burkina Faso, Mauritania and Senegal. The purpose is to work together to eliminate the threat posed by militant Islamists in the area.

 
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