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Moldova Old History

 

The area that is today Moldova was the core country of the historic region of Bessarabia, which was incorporated into the Principality of Moldova during the 15th century. A century later, the Principality ended up under Ottoman (Turkish) rule. So the situation remained until Russia conquered the area in 1812. When the Russian Bolsheviks seized power in 1917, Bessarabia declared independence, to join Romania a year later.

  • AbbreviationFinder.org: Comprehensive guide to and popular abbreviations of Moldova, covering history, economy, and social conditions.

Today's Moldova has been inhabited by a long line of people since the Stone Age, including Thracians, Celts, Goths and Huns. The slaves migrated in the 400s. Later, the area became part of the Bulgarian Empire before, among other magyars and Mongols, invaded.

The area was the core country of the historic region of Bessarabia, which got its name in the 1300s and covered an area between the Dnestr and Prut rivers which is now shared between Moldova and Ukraine. Bessarabia was incorporated in the 15th century with the Principality of Moldova in present-day Romania and remained part of the Principality for several centuries.

In the 16th century the area was invaded by the Ottoman (Turkish) Empire. During this period, the city of Bender (now Tighina) was founded, which is famous for Karl XII's stay there and his fight against Turks and Tatars in 1713 - the so-called Calabash in Bender.

Old History of Moldova

Bessarabia was conquered by Russia in 1812. The Russian regime lasted until 1917 when the tsarism broke down and communists (Bolsheviks) took power. During the Russian Revolution, Bessarabia proclaimed itself an independent republic. Following a referendum, the new republic joined Romania in early 1918.

However, the Communist Soviet Union, formed in 1922, refused to acknowledge the loss of Bessarabia. In order to strengthen Soviet demands in this area, Moscow leaders created a new administrative unit in an area east of the Dnieper River, which until then belonged to the Soviet Republic of Ukraine. The new unit, which had a mixed population - of which 30 percent was Romanian, was named Moldovan Autonomous Soviet Republic in 1924.

At the beginning of the Second World War, Romania was forced by the so-called Molotov-Ribbentrop Pact (a non-assault pact between Germany and the Soviet Union) to hand Bessarabia to the Soviet Union. The northern and southern parts of the area were incorporated in 1940 with the Soviet Republic of Ukraine, while the central part of Bessarabia was merged with the part of the Moldovan Autonomous Soviet Republic which today constitutes Transnistria (the remaining parts of the Moldovan Autonomous Soviet Republic returned to Ukraine). The result of the merger was the Socialist Soviet Republic of Moldova. In 1941 Romania recaptured the area but it was withdrawn by the Soviet Union in 1944.

2013

December

The United States is showing its support

US Secretary of State John Kerry visits Moldova to show US support. Kerry's short visit to Chișinău replaces a canceled trip to Ukraine.

The Moldovan language becomes Romanian

The Constitutional Court states that the Moldovan language will henceforth be officially referred to as Romanian. Thus, over two decades of confusion is settled around the designation of the country's official language, which since the liberation from the Soviet Union has been called Moldavian. According to most linguists, Moldovan and Romanian are basically the same language with only minor differences.

Western Christmas is introduced

Decides that the "Western" Christmas Day, December 25, will be the official holiday in Moldova, while the country is celebrating Orthodox Christmas on January 7; The decision is criticized by the Orthodox Church and the Communist Party. Neighboring Romania celebrates Christmas in December, despite the fact that the Orthodox Church dominates Christianity there.

Transnistria adopts Russian laws

Following Moldova's agreement with the EU (see November 2013), the transnistrian Republic of Transnistria decides to switch to Russian legislation. According to the leader of the Republic, Transnistria prioritizes integration into the Euro-Asian area, that is, the Russian-led customs union rejected by Moldova.

November

EU friends support the government

Following Russia's attempts to disrupt Moldova's path to the EU (see September 2013), tens of thousands of protesters gather in the capital Chișinău to show their support for the government's plans to conclude cooperation agreements with the EU at the end of the month. From the EU Commission then comes the message that Moldova qualified to release visa requirements to EU countries. However, no timetable is specified for when the proposal can be decided and come into force.

One step towards the EU despite protests

Over a thousand EU opponents demonstrate in Chișinău against the country's proximity to the EU. The protest is organized by the Communist Party, and its leader Vladimir Voronin calls on Moldova to follow in Ukraine's footsteps and stop talks with Brussels on closer cooperation. Despite the protests, Moldova participates in the EU summit in Vilnius at the end of the month and signs an agreement that is supposed to lead to a formal association agreement with the European Union in 2014. Georgia also signs a similar agreement.

October

EU support but with conditions

EU Enlargement Commissioner Štefan Füle visiting Moldova explains that the country is a leader in the so-called Eastern Partnership's path to closer relations with the EU. But according to Füle, Moldova must urgently implement constitutional reform and in-depth reform of the judiciary, fight corruption and improve the business climate. The Commissioner promises that the EU will stand on Moldova's side if the country is subject to external pressure (see September 2013) with a view to obstructing EU ambitions.

"Propaganda Law" is torn down

Parliament is repealing a law that made it criminal to disseminate information on homosexuality to minors. The change in the law is part of the efforts to conclude an association agreement with the EU.

September

Russia threatens Moldova

Russia's Deputy Prime Minister Dmitry Rogozin warns Moldova of "serious consequences" if the country signs an association agreement with the EU. Such an agreement would, according to Rogozin, hamper efforts to resolve the conflict around Transnistria (see in particular the chapter Transnistria). He also suggests that it could mean an end to cheap gas supplies to poor Moldova during winter. Moldova President Nicolae Timofti responds that the Moldavians cannot live under threat and explains that his country is determined to forge closer ties with the EU.

Russia stops Moldovan wine

Russia is increasing its pressure by stopping its extensive wine imports from Moldova on the grounds that the wine is not of sufficient quality. Russia is Moldova's leading export market. The European Commission responds to the Russian decision with a proposal that the EU should open its market entirely to Moldavian wine.

June

An approach to the EU

Moldova signs an agreement to encourage greater economic integration with the EU, a decision rejected by Moscow.

May

Clearly with a new prime minister

Parliament approves former Foreign Minister Lurie Leancă as new Prime Minister. Most ministers remain from Vlad Filat's government, but five new ministers are appointed to the Leancă coalition.

April

Court declines Filat as prime minister

The Constitutional Court disapproves President Timofti's appointment of Vlad Filat as the new governor. The Court based its decision on the fact that the Filat government lost a vote of no confidence in Parliament due to suspicions of corruption. Filat describes the court's decision as politically motivated, but President Timofti instead appoints Foreign Minister Iurie Leancă as acting prime minister.

The President is forced to resign

The political power struggle leads to the resignation of Parliament's Speaker Marian Lupu, after members of Prime Minister Filat's Liberal Democratic Party voted in favor of the Communist opposition.

March

The government is falling

The Filat government resigns since it lost a vote of no confidence in Parliament. It happens when some of the government's own members vote with the Communist opposition.

February

Conflict within the government

Prime Minister Filat, who leads the Liberal Democratic Party, accuses his coalition partners of the Liberal Party and the Democratic Party of corruption. The play raises fears about the coalition's disintegration and an upcoming election.

January

The Prosecutor General is forced away

The prosecutor leaves after suspicions that he is guilty of the death of a businessman in connection with hunting. Prime Minister Vlad Filat has called on the prosecutor to leave his post to avoid suspicions about the impact of the investigation. Prosecutors respond by launching an investigation into suspected abuse of power against the Minister of Finance and the Minister of Health.

 
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