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Montenegro Old History

 

Many people have fought for the dominion of what is today Montenegro, but from the 1300s the inhabitants resisted all attempts at conquest and were long ruled by native Orthodox bishops. The country was for a short time its own kingdom before it came under Serbian rule in 1918. During World War II Montenegro was occupied by fascist Italy but became a sub-republic in socialist Yugoslavia after the war.

In ancient times, what is today Montenegro was populated by Illyrian tribes, but the area was conquered by the Romans in the 10th century BC. After the division of the Roman Empire into a western and an eastern part of the year 395 AD, various peoples formed battles with each other and with the Austro-Roman Empire, Byzantium, new states in the Balkans of varying scale and longevity.

  • AbbreviationFinder.org: Comprehensive guide to and popular abbreviations of Montenegro, covering history, economy, and social conditions.

By the middle of the 6th century, the slaves, who had immigrated from the northeast, had colonized almost the entire Balkans. The area that is today Montenegro was first called Duklja, then Zeta and eventually got the name Crna gora (Black Mountain), better known in its Venetian form: Montenegro.

In the 1000s, the mighty medieval Serbian empire emerged. It was recognized by the Byzantine emperor in 1187 and received its own Serbian Orthodox Archbishop in 1219. The church became a unifying force and became of great importance to the Serbs' national and cultural identity.

Old History of Montenegro

The Montenegrin, who are closely related to the Serbs and like them largely Orthodox Christians, remained under Byzantine influence until they became part of the Serbian kingdom in the 12th century. In the latter half of the 13th century, however, Montenegro became independent of Serbia. Venice and the Ottoman (Turkish) Empire were among those who tried to occupy Montenegro, but they never quite succeeded. Montenegro was able to maintain its autonomy under Orthodox bishops, the so-called Vladika, a title inherited from 1697 within the family Petrović Njegoš.

The modern Montenegrin state emerged in the 19th century. At the Berlin Congress in 1878, the country was recognized as an independent state by the outside world and in 1910 Montenegro was proclaimed kingdom under Nikola I, whose many daughters came to be inaugurated in a number of European royal houses.

In the first Balkan war of 1912–1913, Montenegro supported Serbia and, together with Bulgaria and Greece, defeated the Turks. After the Second Balkan War of 1913, when the victors fought for the prey, Serbia and Montenegro split in the Sandžak area between the countries.

During World War I Montenegro again supported Serbia but was occupied in 1916 by the Habsburgs. When the Habsburg monarchy collapsed in 1918, its troops were replaced by Serbs. King Nikola was forced to abdicate and Montenegro was included in the Kingdom of Serbs, Croats and Slovenes proclaimed (from 1929 Kingdom of Yugoslavia) under Serbian governor Aleksandar Karađorđević (Karadjordjevic).

During World War II, most of Montenegro was incorporated with fascist Italy, which also brought together Albania, Kosovo and parts of Macedonia into a Great Banana under its rule. Montenegrin autonomy was greater under the Italians than in the Yugoslav kingdom, but they still chose to fight with the Yugoslav partisans under Communist Party leader Josip Broz (Tito).

After the war, Montenegro became one, and the smallest, of six sub-republics in the Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia. Thanks to his participation in the partisan war, the Montenegrins received many high positions in the Communist League and in the Yugoslav People's Army (JNA).

2010

December

Again new prime minister

Đukanović is leaving the Prime Minister's post again, according to some following pressure from the EU due to alleged but unproven involvement in organized crime (Đukanović rejects both). He is succeeded by the young Finance Minister Igor Lukšić, also from the DPS government.

Montenegro becomes EU candidate

The EU gives Montenegro formal status as a candidate for the Union.

May

DPS successes in local elections

DPS, alone or in coalition with mainly SPD, wins in all but two opštine (local assemblies) in the local elections.

Association agreements with the EU enter into force

Montenegro's Stabilization and Association Agreement (SAA) with the EU formally enters into force, after all EU member states ratified this.

 
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