Many people have fought for the dominion of
what is today Montenegro, but from the 1300s the
inhabitants resisted all attempts at conquest and were
long ruled by native Orthodox bishops. The country was
for a short time its own kingdom before it came under
Serbian rule in 1918. During World War II Montenegro was
occupied by fascist Italy but became a sub-republic in
socialist Yugoslavia after the war.
In ancient times, what is today Montenegro was
populated by Illyrian tribes, but the area was conquered
by the Romans in the 10th century BC. After the division
of the Roman Empire into a western and an eastern part
of the year 395 AD, various peoples formed battles with
each other and with the Austro-Roman Empire, Byzantium,
new states in the Balkans of varying scale and
Comprehensive guide to and popular abbreviations of Montenegro, covering history, economy, and social conditions.
By the middle of the 6th century, the slaves, who had
immigrated from the northeast, had colonized almost the
entire Balkans. The area that is today Montenegro was
first called Duklja, then Zeta and eventually got the
name Crna gora (Black Mountain), better known in its
Venetian form: Montenegro.
In the 1000s, the mighty medieval Serbian empire
emerged. It was recognized by the Byzantine emperor in
1187 and received its own Serbian Orthodox Archbishop in
1219. The church became a unifying force and became of
great importance to the Serbs' national and cultural
The Montenegrin, who are closely related to the Serbs
and like them largely Orthodox Christians, remained
under Byzantine influence until they became part of the
Serbian kingdom in the 12th century. In the latter half
of the 13th century, however, Montenegro became
independent of Serbia. Venice and the Ottoman (Turkish)
Empire were among those who tried to occupy Montenegro,
but they never quite succeeded. Montenegro was able to
maintain its autonomy under Orthodox bishops, the
so-called Vladika, a title inherited from 1697 within
the family Petrović Njegoš.
The modern Montenegrin state emerged in the 19th
century. At the Berlin Congress in 1878, the country was
recognized as an independent state by the outside world
and in 1910 Montenegro was proclaimed kingdom under
Nikola I, whose many daughters came to be inaugurated in
a number of European royal houses.
In the first Balkan war of 1912–1913, Montenegro
supported Serbia and, together with Bulgaria and Greece,
defeated the Turks. After the Second Balkan War of 1913,
when the victors fought for the prey, Serbia and
Montenegro split in the Sandžak area between the
During World War I Montenegro again supported Serbia
but was occupied in 1916 by the Habsburgs. When the
Habsburg monarchy collapsed in 1918, its troops were
replaced by Serbs. King Nikola was forced to abdicate
and Montenegro was included in the Kingdom of Serbs,
Croats and Slovenes proclaimed (from 1929 Kingdom of
Yugoslavia) under Serbian governor Aleksandar
During World War II, most of Montenegro was
incorporated with fascist Italy, which also brought
together Albania, Kosovo and parts of Macedonia into a
Great Banana under its rule. Montenegrin autonomy was
greater under the Italians than in the Yugoslav kingdom,
but they still chose to fight with the Yugoslav
partisans under Communist Party leader Josip Broz
After the war, Montenegro became one, and the
smallest, of six sub-republics in the Socialist Federal
Republic of Yugoslavia. Thanks to his participation in
the partisan war, the Montenegrins received many high
positions in the Communist League and in the Yugoslav
People's Army (JNA).
Again new prime minister
Đukanović is leaving the Prime Minister's post again, according to some
following pressure from the EU due to alleged but unproven involvement in
organized crime (Đukanović rejects both). He is succeeded by the young Finance
Minister Igor Lukšić, also from the DPS government.
Montenegro becomes EU candidate
The EU gives Montenegro formal status as a candidate for the Union.
DPS successes in local elections
DPS, alone or in coalition with mainly SPD, wins in all but two opštine
(local assemblies) in the local elections.
Association agreements with the EU enter into force
Montenegro's Stabilization and Association Agreement (SAA) with the EU
formally enters into force, after all EU member states ratified this.