The Kathmandu Valley has
been the center of state formation for a couple of
millennia. Today's Nepal began to take shape in the 18th
century when a kingdom was formed. In the 19th century,
the king's power was cut by a coup and a system of
hereditary prime ministerial office was introduced.
Eventually opposition to the ruling Ranady dynasty grew.
It was forced to surrender power in 1951, since India
stood on the side of the king and the political
Today's Nepal was inhabited already during the
younger Stone Age, but not until the millennium before
Christ is the area mentioned in Indian scriptures. The
Kiranti people dominated the country at the time of
Buddha's birth in the town of Lumbini 560 BC. From the
end of the 8th century AD the Newar people in the
Kathmandu Valley ruled. Newar may be the root of the
name Nepal; According to another interpretation, it
means "the beginning of a new era".
Comprehensive guide to and popular abbreviations of Nepal, covering history, economy, and social conditions.
The following centuries were marked by Indian
conquests and power struggles between indigenous groups.
In the 12th century, Nepal's rulers began to add the
title to their names. The Mallad dynasty came to
dominate the Kathmandu valley until the 18th century.
The city state of Gorkha
The foundation of today's Nepal was laid in 1768–1769
when the city state of Gurkha (Gorkha), led by Prithvi
Narayan Shah, succumbed to the surrounding principality,
including Kathmandu. The Gurkha people were war caste
Hindus originating in India and their faith and
Indo-European languages came to dominate. The
expansion of the cucumber herd both east and west led to
confrontations with China and later Britain.
The Shah dynasty's position was weakened in the
mid-1840s, when Jung Bahadur, during a period of power
struggles, proclaimed prime minister and occupied other
important posts with his family members. The king was
allowed to retain his throne, but lost his powers. Jung
Bahadur took the title "robbery" and made the Prime
Minister's office hereditary.
Isolated mountain region
During the Ranad dynasty, the development of and in
many areas stopped, the country remained at a medieval
level. But the isolation also helped Nepal to escape
colonization. During the first decades of the 20th
century, an opposition began to grow. Among the
opposition there were officers who served in the British
army and got in touch with democratic ideas.
The Indian independence movement inspired the
millions of Nepalese living in northern India. 1950 was
formed among these Nepalese Congress (NC), which allied
with the royal family to overthrow the Ranad dynasty. NC
started an armed struggle. Since the British left India
in 1947 and the Indian government stood on the side of
the king and NC, the Rana dynasty was forced to
relinquish power. In 1951 the king's supremacy was
Strongly delayed new elections are carried out
The re-election to the Constituent Assembly is carried out, despite sporadic
violence during Election Day in the form of minor blast attacks in Kathmandu,
with several injured as a result. About 12 million eligible voters elect 575 of
601 members from around 16,000 candidates from about 120 parties. Hundreds of
foreign observers are monitoring the election process. The turnout is estimated
at just over 77 percent.
Murder with links to the election
A candidate for the Marxist Leninist party UML is shot dead by perpetrators
in a passing car in Kathmandu. Later this month, another UML politician is
arrested along with two other men. The three are suspected of the murder, whose
motive must have been that the arrested politician did not receive enough
support in his constituency to be able to run for election.
New election postponed - again
The transitional government announces that the new election to the
Constituent Assembly, which would have been held in June 2013, has now been
postponed to November the same year.
Truth Commission gets rejected
The Supreme Court rejects the government's plans to establish a Truth and
Reconciliation Commission (see Modern History). According to the court, such a
commission could lead to impunity being issued for serious crimes.
Unpolitical transitional government is formed
The Maoist-led Bhattarai government resigns and a ministry consisting mainly
of retired bureaucrats is appointed, headed by Supreme Court Chief Justice Khil
Raj Regmi. The parties also agree that the provisional government may remain
until December 15, if elections cannot be held in June.
Election day is moved again
Nepal's four largest political parties agree that the planned new election to
the Constituent Assembly should be postponed, from May to June 21, 2013. The
political deadlock - the country is unconstitutional, without a permanent
parliament and with a temporary, disputed government-paralyzed government -
means that Concerns are rising among the public and violent protests in the
streets must once again be dispelled by the riot police.