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Qatar Old History

 

Archaeologists have found traces of human settlements in Qatar from around 4000 before our time count. However, the country has never played a historically prominent role. Its few residents have lived on livestock, pearl fishing and piracy.

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In the 18th century, Qatar was ruled by the Bedouin clan Al Khalifa (Khalifa's house / family), who had come from the Arabian Peninsula.

The clan also subjugated Bahrain. In connection with a war between Qatar and Bahrain in 1867, the current ruling clan Al Thani (Thani's house / family) with British aid took power in Qatar.

Five years later, Turkish troops were stationed in the country, which at least formally became part of the Ottoman Empire. The Ottomans had the habit of letting local elites retain the lead, if it was considered to benefit the kingdom.

In 1916, when the Ottoman Empire was about to collapse, the Turks left the city of Doha. The Emir of Qatar then signed a treaty with the United Kingdom and the area became a British protectorate.

Old History of Qatar

2017

December

Qatar buys 36 fighter aircraft in billion stores

December 9

An agreement is announced for the purchase of 24 fighter aircraft from British defense giant BAE, worth € 6.8 billion. The message comes just days after a deal was reached to also buy twelve battle planes of the model Rafale by French Dassault.

Leaders are absent from GCC summit

December 5

Hopes for a solution to the conflict within the GCC come to shame when everyone except the host country of Kuwait and Qatar is represented at a lower level at the regional cooperation organization summit in Kuwait. The meeting ends prematurely and is overshadowed by Saudi Arabia and the United Arab Emirates declaring that they intend to form a new organization to strengthen their military, political, economic, trade and cultural cooperation.

November

Trade agreement with Turkey and Iran

November 26th

Qatar enters into an agreement with Turkey and Iran in order to facilitate trade. The settlement hopes to reduce the shortage of goods and, not least, the building materials needed for the infrastructure investments ahead of the 2022 Soccer World Cup.

"Qatar better without neighboring countries"

November 14

In a speech, Emir Tamim says Qatar is doing "a thousand times better without" Saudi Arabia and the United Arab Emirates. Nevertheless, the government is working to set up projects that will guarantee the supply of food and water during the ongoing blockade of neighboring countries. Turkey, Iran and Spain have moved in to secure Qatar's food imports

Women in advisory ward

November 9

Women are being prepared for the first time in the advisory congregation, majlis al-shura. The Emir appoints 28 new members (out of a total of 35) through decree, of which four are women. Some members from the past are still there.

October

"Neighboring countries want to overthrow the government"

October 29th

Emir Tamim accuses Saudi Arabia and its allies of trying to drive a regime change in Qatar. They dislike the Qatari "vision for the region", which includes freedom of expression, says the emir in an interview with the American broadcaster CBS.

Military agreement with Russia

October 26th

The government announces that a defense agreement has been signed with Russia, following a visit by Russian Defense Minister Sergei Shuygu. According to the statement, the agreement applies to "technical cooperation", equipment and air defense, without specifying details. Since the crisis with neighboring countries broke out, Qatar has also signed an agreement to buy fighter aircraft from the US and the UK and warships from Italy.

Minimum wages should be introduced

October 25th

The government promises a number of labor law reforms, including the introduction of a minimum wage that will also apply to migrant workers. Furthermore, employers should no longer be able to prevent workers from leaving the country, ID documents must be issued by the state instead of companies and an authority must monitor that specified conditions for employees are kept. The promises come the day before a meeting with the UN ILO, which has called for reforms and set a deadline in November.

September

Failed mediation attempt by Trump

September 8

US President Donald Trump is trying to mediate in the conflict between Qatar and neighboring countries. Trump is able to call emir Tamim and Saudi Arabia's King Salman. However, Saudi Arabia interrupts the dialogue immediately after the conversation as the respective countries' media disseminate contradictory information about who called who and how open the parties were during the discussion.

New port opened

September 5

Qatar inaugurates a new port in Hamad on the east coast a few miles south of the capital Doha. It is planned that Hamad will become the country's largest container port and receive shipping traffic from 150 countries.

August

Relations with Iran are restored

August 24th

Qatar announces that diplomatic relations with Iran will be fully resumed, despite the Saudi-led alliance calling for reduced contacts between the countries. The ambassador was called home from Tehran since protesters attacked the Saudi embassy (see January 2016). Iran has helped Qatar during the trade and travel restrictions imposed by Saudi Arabia with allies in June.

Saudi Arabia allows Qatarians to participate in hajj

August 16th

The Saudi government announces that Qatari citizens will be allowed to travel to Mecca to participate in the annual pilgrimage. The decision comes after the Saudi Crown Prince Mohammed received an envoy from Doha, in the first high-level meeting since the blockade began in June.

New visa rules should attract tourists

10th August

In an effort to reduce its international isolation, the government introduced new rules that allow people from 80 countries in Europe, Latin America and Asia to visit the country without a visa. Lebanon is the only Arab country on the list. Previously, visa freedom exists between the six countries of the GCC regional cooperation organization of which Qatar is a member.

A new form of residence permit is introduced

August 2

The government approves a new form of residence permit for foreigners, which violates the region's hard line. People who have "served the country", have knowledge that can benefit the country, or have a Qatari mother and a foreign father are given the opportunity to obtain the new residence permit. The rules may include tens of thousands of foreign nationals who now have access to services such as healthcare and education on the same terms as Qatari citizens. They also have the opportunity to apply for government jobs, including in the military, and have property in their own name.

Qatar complains with the WTO

1 August

The government is reported to have turned to the World Trade Organization (WTO) as a result of the trade boycott against the country. Negotiations will thus begin between Qatar on the one hand and Saudi Arabia, Bahrain and the United Arab Emirates on the other. If a settlement is not reached within 60 days, the case goes to a WTO-appointed panel.

July

Qatar changes terror laws

July 21st

Qatar draws up two national lists of terrorist-stamped individuals and groups and defines why they ended up there. The country also defines what terrorist crimes, terrorists, terrorist financing and terrorist groups are for. The measures are part of the settlement with the US earlier this month and, after the Saudi-led group of countries eased the demands they make to reestablish diplomatic relations with Qatar and lift the boycott against the country.

Qatar demands are diminished

July 19

Saudi Arabia, Bahrain, Egypt and the United Arab Emirates announce that the list of the 13 demands that the countries impose on Qatar to restore diplomatic relations and lift the boycott has now been replaced by six broad principles. These are mainly about Qatar having to "fight terrorism and extremism" and stop "provocative and revolting acts".

The United States and Qatar enter into an agreement on the fight against terrorism

July 11

The US and Qatar present a bilateral agreement on how to intensify the fight against terrorism. However, the Saudi-led group of countries that have imposed sanctions on Qatar says that the measures in the agreement are insufficient for some of the sanctions to end.

Qatar promises continued support for Gaza

July 11

Qatar's envoy to the Gaza Strip says Qatar will continue to fund projects in the Hamas-controlled Palestinian area, despite a Saudi-led coalition of Arab countries imposing a number of restrictions on Qatar for alleged support to terrorist groups. According to the US, the EU and Israel, Hamas is a terrorist group. According to the envoy, Qatar supports the Palestinian people, not any particular group.

Qatar: "The demands are unrealistic"

July 5

When the extended deadline expires, Qatar's foreign minister said at a press conference that the 13 demands that the Saudi-led countries impose on Qatar are unrealistic and impossible to live up to. Foreign Minister Mohammed bin Abdulrahman Al Thani adds that, according to him, the demands on Qatar are not about terrorism, but about squandering freedom of expression. The Saudi-led countries say that the ongoing restrictions on Qatar will thus continue and that further sanctions will be introduced at the appropriate time.

The deadline is extended

July 3

Since Qatar rejected the list of demands from Saudi Arabia, Egypt, Bahrain and the United Arab Emirates, the countries extend the deadline by 48 hours, from July 3 to July 5. If Qatar fails to comply, the countries will impose new sanctions. Countries accuse Qatar of supporting Islamist terrorism and liaising with organizations like Hamas and Muslim Brotherhood

June

Iran: "unacceptable siege"

June 26

US Secretary of State Tillerson says some demands that the Saudi-led coalition places on Qatar are "very difficult for Qatar to cope with". Iranian President Rohani says Iran will continue to have contact with Qatar and that the "siege" of the country is unacceptable.

Qatar gets ultimatum

June 23rd

The Saudi-led Arab states submit a list of 13 requirements to Qatar. The countries demand, among other things, that Qatar reduce contacts with Iran, terminate contacts with Hezbollah and the Muslim Brotherhood, close a Turkish military base in the country and close al-Jazira with several other news channels. Countries give Qatar a 10-day deadline, until July 3, to implement the requirements.

Turkey supports Qatar

June 12

Turkey condemns the blockade against Qatar and calls it "inhuman" and says it resembles a death penalty. Turkey has already flown food to Doha and President Recep Tayyip Erdogan promises to continue to assist Qatar. Morocco says it is taking a neutral stance in the conflict but also states that it intends to send food to the country.

Prosecutions of terrorism are rejected

June 9

The government sharply dismisses allegations from Saudi Arabia and its allies who have published a list of some 60 people and groups alleged to have links to terrorism. The list includes Muslim Brotherhood's spiritual leader Yusuf al-Qaradawi, based in Doha. Foreign Minister Sheikh Mohammed bin Abdulrahmann Al Thani has said that Qatar has been isolated because the country is "successful and progressive" and is a "platform for peace", and that Qatar will not give up.

Neighbors break relationships

June 5

The situation in the region worsens considerably as several countries break their diplomatic relations with Qatar. Saudi Arabia, Bahrain, United Arab Emirates, Egypt, Yemen, the Benghazi-based government in Libya, and the Maldives jointly accuse Qatar of threatening stability through support for IS and al-Qaeda. Border crossings are closed and Qatarians are ordered to leave neighboring countries, while citizens of those countries are prohibited from visiting Qatar. The airspace is closed for Qatari flights. The country is accused of cooperating with "Iran-backed terrorist groups" in the troubled East Saudi region of Qatif and Bahrain. Qatar rejects the allegations, which mean a much more serious split between the countries on the Arabian Peninsula than before, while tensions between Iran and rival Saudi Arabia have intensified. For the Qatari, the situation can quickly become difficult, not least as over 40 percent of the food is estimated to come to Qatar with trucks from Saudi Arabia.

February

"Half a billion dollars a week"

February 7

Infrastructure investments for the 2022 Soccer World Cup cost nearly $ 500 million a week, says Finance Minister Ali al-Emadi. A total of more than $ 200 billion is expected to be invested in front of the giant event. The budget deficit for 2016 is estimated at just over $ 12.8 billion, but the pressure on the economy is now decreasing thanks to rising oil prices.

 
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