Archaeologists have found traces of human
settlements in Qatar from around 4000 before our time
count. However, the country has never played a
historically prominent role. Its few residents have
lived on livestock, pearl fishing and piracy.
Comprehensive guide to and popular abbreviations of Qatar, covering history, economy, and social conditions.
In the 18th century, Qatar was ruled by the Bedouin
clan Al Khalifa (Khalifa's house / family), who had come
from the Arabian Peninsula.
The clan also subjugated Bahrain. In connection with
a war between Qatar and Bahrain in 1867, the current
ruling clan Al Thani (Thani's house / family) with
British aid took power in Qatar.
Five years later, Turkish troops were stationed in
the country, which at least formally became part of the
Ottoman Empire. The Ottomans had the habit of letting
local elites retain the lead, if it was considered to
benefit the kingdom.
In 1916, when the Ottoman Empire was about to
collapse, the Turks left the city of Doha. The Emir of
Qatar then signed a treaty with the United Kingdom and
the area became a British protectorate.
Qatar buys 36 fighter aircraft in billion stores
An agreement is announced for the purchase of 24 fighter aircraft from
British defense giant BAE, worth € 6.8 billion. The message comes just days
after a deal was reached to also buy twelve battle planes of the model Rafale by
Leaders are absent from GCC summit
Hopes for a solution to the conflict within the GCC come to shame when
everyone except the host country of Kuwait and Qatar is represented at a lower
level at the regional cooperation organization summit in Kuwait. The meeting
ends prematurely and is overshadowed by Saudi Arabia and the United Arab
Emirates declaring that they intend to form a new organization to strengthen
their military, political, economic, trade and cultural cooperation.
Trade agreement with Turkey and Iran
Qatar enters into an agreement with Turkey and Iran in order to facilitate
trade. The settlement hopes to reduce the shortage of goods and, not least, the
building materials needed for the infrastructure investments ahead of the 2022
Soccer World Cup.
"Qatar better without neighboring countries"
In a speech, Emir Tamim says Qatar is doing "a thousand times better without"
Saudi Arabia and the United Arab Emirates. Nevertheless, the government is
working to set up projects that will guarantee the supply of food and water
during the ongoing blockade of neighboring countries. Turkey, Iran and Spain
have moved in to secure Qatar's food imports
Women in advisory ward
Women are being prepared for the first time in the advisory congregation,
majlis al-shura. The Emir appoints 28 new members (out of a total of 35) through
decree, of which four are women. Some members from the past are still there.
"Neighboring countries want to overthrow the government"
Emir Tamim accuses Saudi Arabia and its allies of trying to drive a regime
change in Qatar. They dislike the Qatari "vision for the region", which includes
freedom of expression, says the emir in an interview with the American
Military agreement with Russia
The government announces that a defense agreement has been signed with
Russia, following a visit by Russian Defense Minister Sergei Shuygu. According
to the statement, the agreement applies to "technical cooperation", equipment
and air defense, without specifying details. Since the crisis with neighboring
countries broke out, Qatar has also signed an agreement to buy fighter aircraft
from the US and the UK and warships from Italy.
Minimum wages should be introduced
The government promises a number of labor law reforms, including the
introduction of a minimum wage that will also apply to migrant workers.
Furthermore, employers should no longer be able to prevent workers from leaving
the country, ID documents must be issued by the state instead of companies and
an authority must monitor that specified conditions for employees are kept. The
promises come the day before a meeting with the UN ILO, which has called for
reforms and set a deadline in November.
Failed mediation attempt by Trump
US President Donald Trump is trying to mediate in the conflict between Qatar
and neighboring countries. Trump is able to call emir Tamim and Saudi Arabia's
King Salman. However, Saudi Arabia interrupts the dialogue immediately after the
conversation as the respective countries' media disseminate contradictory
information about who called who and how open the parties were during the
New port opened
Qatar inaugurates a new port in Hamad on the east coast a few miles south of
the capital Doha. It is planned that Hamad will become the country's largest
container port and receive shipping traffic from 150 countries.
Relations with Iran are restored
Qatar announces that diplomatic relations with Iran will be fully resumed,
despite the Saudi-led alliance calling for reduced contacts between the
countries. The ambassador was called home from Tehran since protesters attacked
the Saudi embassy (see January 2016). Iran has helped Qatar
during the trade and travel restrictions imposed by Saudi Arabia with allies in
Saudi Arabia allows Qatarians to participate in hajj
The Saudi government announces that Qatari citizens will be allowed to travel
to Mecca to participate in the annual pilgrimage. The decision comes after the
Saudi Crown Prince Mohammed received an envoy from Doha, in the first high-level
meeting since the blockade began in June.
New visa rules should attract tourists
In an effort to reduce its international isolation, the government introduced
new rules that allow people from 80 countries in Europe, Latin America and Asia
to visit the country without a visa. Lebanon is the only Arab country on the
list. Previously, visa freedom exists between the six countries of the GCC
regional cooperation organization of which Qatar is a member.
A new form of residence permit is introduced
The government approves a new form of residence permit for foreigners, which
violates the region's hard line. People who have "served the country", have
knowledge that can benefit the country, or have a Qatari mother and a foreign
father are given the opportunity to obtain the new residence permit. The rules
may include tens of thousands of foreign nationals who now have access to
services such as healthcare and education on the same terms as Qatari citizens.
They also have the opportunity to apply for government jobs, including in the
military, and have property in their own name.
Qatar complains with the WTO
The government is reported to have turned to the World Trade Organization
(WTO) as a result of the trade boycott against the country. Negotiations will
thus begin between Qatar on the one hand and Saudi Arabia, Bahrain and the
United Arab Emirates on the other. If a settlement is not reached within 60
days, the case goes to a WTO-appointed panel.
Qatar changes terror laws
Qatar draws up two national lists of terrorist-stamped individuals and groups
and defines why they ended up there. The country also defines what terrorist
crimes, terrorists, terrorist financing and terrorist groups are for. The
measures are part of the settlement with the US earlier this month and, after
the Saudi-led group of countries eased the demands they make to reestablish
diplomatic relations with Qatar and lift the boycott against the country.
Qatar demands are diminished
Saudi Arabia, Bahrain, Egypt and the United Arab Emirates announce that the
list of the 13 demands that the countries impose on Qatar to restore diplomatic
relations and lift the boycott has now been replaced by six broad principles.
These are mainly about Qatar having to "fight terrorism and extremism" and stop
"provocative and revolting acts".
The United States and Qatar enter into an agreement on the fight against
The US and Qatar present a bilateral agreement on how to intensify the fight
against terrorism. However, the Saudi-led group of countries that have imposed
sanctions on Qatar says that the measures in the agreement are insufficient for
some of the sanctions to end.
Qatar promises continued support for Gaza
Qatar's envoy to the Gaza Strip says Qatar will continue to fund projects in
the Hamas-controlled Palestinian area, despite a Saudi-led coalition of Arab
countries imposing a number of restrictions on Qatar for alleged support to
terrorist groups. According to the US, the EU and Israel, Hamas is a terrorist
group. According to the envoy, Qatar supports the Palestinian people, not any
Qatar: "The demands are unrealistic"
When the extended deadline expires, Qatar's foreign minister said at a press
conference that the 13 demands that the Saudi-led countries impose on Qatar are
unrealistic and impossible to live up to. Foreign Minister Mohammed bin
Abdulrahman Al Thani adds that, according to him, the demands on Qatar are not
about terrorism, but about squandering freedom of expression. The Saudi-led
countries say that the ongoing restrictions on Qatar will thus continue and that
further sanctions will be introduced at the appropriate time.
The deadline is extended
Since Qatar rejected the list of demands from Saudi Arabia, Egypt, Bahrain
and the United Arab Emirates, the countries extend the deadline by 48 hours,
from July 3 to July 5. If Qatar fails to comply, the countries will impose new
sanctions. Countries accuse Qatar of supporting Islamist terrorism and liaising
with organizations like Hamas and Muslim Brotherhood
Iran: "unacceptable siege"
US Secretary of State Tillerson says some demands that the Saudi-led
coalition places on Qatar are "very difficult for Qatar to cope with". Iranian
President Rohani says Iran will continue to have contact with Qatar and that the
"siege" of the country is unacceptable.
Qatar gets ultimatum
The Saudi-led Arab states submit a list of 13 requirements to Qatar. The
countries demand, among other things, that Qatar reduce contacts with Iran,
terminate contacts with Hezbollah and the Muslim Brotherhood, close a Turkish
military base in the country and close al-Jazira with several other news
channels. Countries give Qatar a 10-day deadline, until July 3, to implement the
Turkey supports Qatar
Turkey condemns the blockade against Qatar and calls it "inhuman" and says it
resembles a death penalty. Turkey has already flown food to Doha and President
Recep Tayyip Erdogan promises to continue to assist Qatar. Morocco says it is
taking a neutral stance in the conflict but also states that it intends to send
food to the country.
Prosecutions of terrorism are rejected
The government sharply dismisses allegations from Saudi Arabia and its allies
who have published a list of some 60 people and groups alleged to have links to
terrorism. The list includes Muslim Brotherhood's spiritual leader Yusuf
al-Qaradawi, based in Doha. Foreign Minister Sheikh Mohammed bin Abdulrahmann Al
Thani has said that Qatar has been isolated because the country is "successful
and progressive" and is a "platform for peace", and that Qatar will not give up.
Neighbors break relationships
The situation in the region worsens considerably as several countries break
their diplomatic relations with Qatar. Saudi Arabia, Bahrain, United Arab
Emirates, Egypt, Yemen, the Benghazi-based government in Libya, and the Maldives
jointly accuse Qatar of threatening stability through support for IS and
al-Qaeda. Border crossings are closed and Qatarians are ordered to leave
neighboring countries, while citizens of those countries are prohibited from
visiting Qatar. The airspace is closed for Qatari flights. The country is
accused of cooperating with "Iran-backed terrorist groups" in the troubled East
Saudi region of Qatif and Bahrain. Qatar rejects the allegations, which mean a
much more serious split between the countries on the Arabian Peninsula than
before, while tensions between Iran and rival Saudi Arabia have intensified. For
the Qatari, the situation can quickly become difficult, not least as over 40
percent of the food is estimated to come to Qatar with trucks from Saudi Arabia.
"Half a billion dollars a week"
Infrastructure investments for the 2022 Soccer World Cup cost nearly $ 500
million a week, says Finance Minister Ali al-Emadi. A total of more than $ 200
billion is expected to be invested in front of the giant event. The budget
deficit for 2016 is estimated at just over $ 12.8 billion, but the pressure on
the economy is now decreasing thanks to rising oil prices.