During the 13th and 13th centuries, the bantu
people migrated to Congo, Teke and Vili into what is
today Congo-Brazzaville. Back then, pygmies lived in the
area, but otherwise not much is known about the
country's earliest history.
Comprehensive guide to and popular abbreviations of Republic of the Congo, covering history, economy, and social conditions.
The Congo people founded during the 15th century a
kingdom along the southern part of the Congo River and
along the coast. Further north, the vili formed the
kingdom of Loango and in the east founded the kingdom of
the tea people Makoko.
Portuguese began trading in 1482 with the locals. The
commodities were slaves and ivory. During the 18th and
19th centuries, slave hunting became so intense that
parts of northern Congo-Brazzaville are still almost
uninhabited. At the end of the 19th century, the slave
trade was replaced by exports of agricultural goods such
as rubber and palm products.
In 1880, the French naval officer and explorer Pierre
Savorgnan de Brazza took the first man up for the Congo
River. He made an agreement with Makoko who placed the
kingdom under French patronage. Three years later, a
similar agreement was signed with Loango. The two
kingdoms formed the basis of what became the French
possession of the French Congo in 1891. In 1910, French
Congo became part of the French Equatorial Africa
colony, which also included today's Gabon, the Central
African Republic and Chad.
At the end of the 19th century, France handed over
the colonies to private companies who were allowed to
exploit the region for payment. Forced labor was
introduced and the colony was plundered for natural
riches. Despite constant revolts among the local
population, the system did not cease until 1930 when the
colony had become unprofitable. In 1945, forced labor
was abolished and the Congolese were guaranteed the same
rights as French citizens. They also had to elect their
own representatives to the French Parliament.
In 1958, the colony became an autonomous territory
within the French Commonwealth and changed its name to
the Republic of Congo. Catholic priest Fulbert Youlou
was appointed prime minister. The country became
independent from France in 1960.
Armistice with rebels
Members of the former Ninjamilis enter into a
ceasefire with the government. The Ninjamilis was
formally dissolved in 2008, but members of the militia
launched a new uprising against the government of the
Southern Pool region following Nguesso-Sassou's victory
in the March 2016 presidential election. Bintsamou is
also called Pastor Ntumi or "the preacher". A few days
after the settlement, Bintsamou complains that he did
not see the agreement before it was signed by one of his
representatives. He says the text needs to be corrected.
Among other things, Bintsamou demands that all political
prisoners be released and that the government provides
financial and social support to the people of the
Visas abolished between neighboring countries
The members of Cemac (Cameroon, Central African
Republic, Chad, Equatorial Guinea, Gabon and
Congo-Brazzaville) announce that the internal visa-free
agreement has now been ratified by all member states and
will therefore be implemented. The agreement has been
missing for 15 years through negotiations. The process
has dragged on the time when the oil countries of Gabon
and Equatorial Guinea were worried about being flooded
by job seekers from neighboring countries. Now, however,
these countries have also ratified the agreement.
Mouamba back as prime minister
21th of August
President Sassou-Nguesso reappointed Clément Mouamba
as Prime Minister. He is commissioned to form a new
The government is leaving
President Denis Sassou Nguesso announces the
resignation of Prime Minister Clement Mouamba's
government. This is being done before new negotiations
with the IMF.
President: "The economy in crisis"
President Denis Sassou Nguesso openly admits that the
country, despite its oil resources, has financial
problems, not least a high government debt, which,
according to the International Monetary Fund (IMF),
corresponds to about 117 percent of GDP. Sassou Nguesso
says that a large part of the problems are due to low
world market prices of oil and other raw materials.
Almost all sectors of the economy have been hit by
recession. The IMF has accused the regime of concealing
some of the blame for the organization.
Big victory for the ruling party
Incomplete results from the second round show that
the ruling PCT confirms its majority with a total of 90
seats. UDH-Yuki and Upads each have eight seats in the
National Assembly. Among the elected candidates for the
PCT are two daughters and a son of President Sassou
Nguesso. In nine constituencies in the Pool region,
where elections could not be carried out because of
violent acts, the sitting members are allowed to retain
their seats. The turnout is just over 44 percent, with
significantly higher participation in the countryside
than in the larger cities.
Worried about Election Day
The second round of elections will take place on July
30. From parts of the capital come reports of suspected
election fraud and violence.
PCT takes a big lead
In the first round of elections, 93 candidates secure
seats in parliament, 70 of them from PCT. Seven
candidates for UDH-Yuki are also elected, as are three
representatives of Upads.
Vulnerable civilians need support
The government and several UN agencies jointly appeal
to the outside world for just over EUR 20 million to
help 138,000 people in the Pool region who are affected
by violence and general insecurity in the area. There
has been concern in the Pool area since Brazzaville
since Sassou Nguesso was re-elected as president in
March 2016. According to the UN, third residents in the
region were forced to flee their homes. In the
parliamentary elections on July 16, the election could
not be conducted in eight of the region's 14
constituencies because of the uncertain conditions.
Choices with almost certain victors
Following an electoral movement strongly dominated by
the ruling Congolese Workers' Party (PCT), the Congolese
elect a new parliament. PCT lists candidates in 128 of
the 151 constituencies. Several independent candidates
are close to the government party. Pan-African Social
Democratic Union (Upads) has 43 candidates and newly
formed Union of Humanist Democrats (UDH-Yuki) 31 the
state media and also funded their electoral movement
with public funds. The election will be decided in a
second round on 30 July.
The president's daughter is being prosecuted in
President's daughter Julienne Sassou Nguesso and her
husband Guy Johnson are being prosecuted for corruption
in France. The couple has been investigated for money
laundering and misuse of public funds, including in
connection with a property purchase in a Paris suburb
(the property was estimated to be worth around EUR 3
million in 2006 and has since been renovated for over
EUR 5 million). According to investigators, large sums
of money have been transferred from the Congolese
Treasury to companies in Seychelles, Mauritius and Hong
Kong, and are suspected to have gone to the presidential
family's overseas life.
Kolélas forms a new party
Opposition politician Guy-Brice Parfait Kolelas, who
ran as an independent candidate in the 2016 presidential
election, is forming a new party, the Union of
Humanist Democrats (UDH- Yuki).
Opposition politicians are arrested
Opposition politician Okombi Salissa, who was one of
the 2016 presidential candidates, is arrested by police.
He has been wanted since December 2016 on charges of
possession of weapons.