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Republic of Congo Old History

 

During the 13th and 13th centuries, the bantu people migrated to Congo, Teke and Vili into what is today Congo-Brazzaville. Back then, pygmies lived in the area, but otherwise not much is known about the country's earliest history.

  • AbbreviationFinder.org: Comprehensive guide to and popular abbreviations of Republic of the Congo, covering history, economy, and social conditions.

The Congo people founded during the 15th century a kingdom along the southern part of the Congo River and along the coast. Further north, the vili formed the kingdom of Loango and in the east founded the kingdom of the tea people Makoko.

Portuguese began trading in 1482 with the locals. The commodities were slaves and ivory. During the 18th and 19th centuries, slave hunting became so intense that parts of northern Congo-Brazzaville are still almost uninhabited. At the end of the 19th century, the slave trade was replaced by exports of agricultural goods such as rubber and palm products.

In 1880, the French naval officer and explorer Pierre Savorgnan de Brazza took the first man up for the Congo River. He made an agreement with Makoko who placed the kingdom under French patronage. Three years later, a similar agreement was signed with Loango. The two kingdoms formed the basis of what became the French possession of the French Congo in 1891. In 1910, French Congo became part of the French Equatorial Africa colony, which also included today's Gabon, the Central African Republic and Chad.

Old History of Republic of Congo

At the end of the 19th century, France handed over the colonies to private companies who were allowed to exploit the region for payment. Forced labor was introduced and the colony was plundered for natural riches. Despite constant revolts among the local population, the system did not cease until 1930 when the colony had become unprofitable. In 1945, forced labor was abolished and the Congolese were guaranteed the same rights as French citizens. They also had to elect their own representatives to the French Parliament.

In 1958, the colony became an autonomous territory within the French Commonwealth and changed its name to the Republic of Congo. Catholic priest Fulbert Youlou was appointed prime minister. The country became independent from France in 1960.

2017

December

Armistice with rebels

December 23

Members of the former Ninjamilis enter into a ceasefire with the government. The Ninjamilis was formally dissolved in 2008, but members of the militia launched a new uprising against the government of the Southern Pool region following Nguesso-Sassou's victory in the March 2016 presidential election. Bintsamou is also called Pastor Ntumi or "the preacher". A few days after the settlement, Bintsamou complains that he did not see the agreement before it was signed by one of his representatives. He says the text needs to be corrected. Among other things, Bintsamou demands that all political prisoners be released and that the government provides financial and social support to the people of the region.

November

Visas abolished between neighboring countries

November 1st

The members of Cemac (Cameroon, Central African Republic, Chad, Equatorial Guinea, Gabon and Congo-Brazzaville) announce that the internal visa-free agreement has now been ratified by all member states and will therefore be implemented. The agreement has been missing for 15 years through negotiations. The process has dragged on the time when the oil countries of Gabon and Equatorial Guinea were worried about being flooded by job seekers from neighboring countries. Now, however, these countries have also ratified the agreement.

August

Mouamba back as prime minister

21th of August

President Sassou-Nguesso reappointed Clément Mouamba as Prime Minister. He is commissioned to form a new government.

The government is leaving

August 17th

President Denis Sassou Nguesso announces the resignation of Prime Minister Clement Mouamba's government. This is being done before new negotiations with the IMF.

President: "The economy in crisis"

August 16th

President Denis Sassou Nguesso openly admits that the country, despite its oil resources, has financial problems, not least a high government debt, which, according to the International Monetary Fund (IMF), corresponds to about 117 percent of GDP. Sassou Nguesso says that a large part of the problems are due to low world market prices of oil and other raw materials. Almost all sectors of the economy have been hit by recession. The IMF has accused the regime of concealing some of the blame for the organization.

Big victory for the ruling party

August 3rd

Incomplete results from the second round show that the ruling PCT confirms its majority with a total of 90 seats. UDH-Yuki and Upads each have eight seats in the National Assembly. Among the elected candidates for the PCT are two daughters and a son of President Sassou Nguesso. In nine constituencies in the Pool region, where elections could not be carried out because of violent acts, the sitting members are allowed to retain their seats. The turnout is just over 44 percent, with significantly higher participation in the countryside than in the larger cities.

July

Worried about Election Day

July 30

The second round of elections will take place on July 30. From parts of the capital come reports of suspected election fraud and violence.

PCT takes a big lead

July 21st

In the first round of elections, 93 candidates secure seats in parliament, 70 of them from PCT. Seven candidates for UDH-Yuki are also elected, as are three representatives of Upads.

Vulnerable civilians need support

July 18

The government and several UN agencies jointly appeal to the outside world for just over EUR 20 million to help 138,000 people in the Pool region who are affected by violence and general insecurity in the area. There has been concern in the Pool area since Brazzaville since Sassou Nguesso was re-elected as president in March 2016. According to the UN, third residents in the region were forced to flee their homes. In the parliamentary elections on July 16, the election could not be conducted in eight of the region's 14 constituencies because of the uncertain conditions.

Choices with almost certain victors

July 16

Following an electoral movement strongly dominated by the ruling Congolese Workers' Party (PCT), the Congolese elect a new parliament. PCT lists candidates in 128 of the 151 constituencies. Several independent candidates are close to the government party. Pan-African Social Democratic Union (Upads) has 43 candidates and newly formed Union of Humanist Democrats (UDH-Yuki) 31 the state media and also funded their electoral movement with public funds. The election will be decided in a second round on 30 July.

June

The president's daughter is being prosecuted in France

June 25

President's daughter Julienne Sassou Nguesso and her husband Guy Johnson are being prosecuted for corruption in France. The couple has been investigated for money laundering and misuse of public funds, including in connection with a property purchase in a Paris suburb (the property was estimated to be worth around EUR 3 million in 2006 and has since been renovated for over EUR 5 million). According to investigators, large sums of money have been transferred from the Congolese Treasury to companies in Seychelles, Mauritius and Hong Kong, and are suspected to have gone to the presidential family's overseas life.

March

Kolélas forms a new party

March 2

Opposition politician Guy-Brice Parfait Kolelas, who ran as an independent candidate in the 2016 presidential election, is forming a new party, the Union of Humanist Democrats (UDH- Yuki).

January

Opposition politicians are arrested

January 10

Opposition politician Okombi Salissa, who was one of the 2016 presidential candidates, is arrested by police. He has been wanted since December 2016 on charges of possession of weapons.

 
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