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Rwanda Old History

 

Rwanda grew as a nation for hundreds of years through migrations across the African continent. In the light of the 1994 genocide, old historical writing has been called into question and the descriptions of various ethnic groups have been partially revised. However, it seems clear that the contradictions that led to the genocide were mainly built up during the colonial era.

The first inhabitants of the area are believed to have been pygmies, twee, who fed themselves as hunters and collectors. At the end of the first millennium in our era, there was a relatively highly developed agricultural culture, built by immigrant Bantu people. From about the 11th century, livestock management seems to have begun to play an important role. Probably later a slow immigration of livestock-loving people from the northeast, who would be the Tutsi ancestors, happened. From the 15th century, a Tutsi kingship emerged, which in the 19th century had gained control of most of the present Rwanda.

  • AbbreviationFinder.org: Comprehensive guide to and popular abbreviations of Rwanda, covering history, economy, and social conditions.

At the Berlin Conference of 1884-1885, when the European great powers divided Africa between them, Germany was given the right to colonize Rwanda and Burundi. The Tutsiel elite of the area could, through the protection of the Germans, strengthen and expand their power and became increasingly authoritarian. That development continued since Belgium took over power during the First World War. The Belgians bridged the social divide between Hutus and Tutsis by introducing ID cards with ethnic affiliation indicated.

Old History of Rwanda

In the 1950s, a change in the attitude of the Belgians to the Rwandans took place. The Tutsis wanted a quick independence while still in power, but instead won the Hutu's claim to influence a new generation of colonizers. The racially substantiated contradictions erupted in full bloom.

At the death of King Mutara III in 1959, the Tutsi elite tried to take advantage of the removal of the opposition Hutu. This led to an uprising among the Hutu people who were inspired by the Belgians. 20,000 Tutsis were killed and 100,000 fled abroad. The Tutsi Empire was broken and in a referendum two years later the kingdom was abolished.

At the same time as the referendum, parliamentary elections were held as a preparation for independence. The election brought the Hutu people's liberation party (Parmehutu) to power. Its leader Grégoire Kayibanda became Rwanda's first president at independence on July 1, 1962.

2012

December

Former minister sentenced to genocide

Former Prime Minister Augustin Ngirabatware is sentenced by the Arusha court to 35 years in prison for genocide, incitement to genocide and incitement to rape as a crime against humanity. This is the last judgment delivered in the court's first instance.

October

Ingabire is sentenced to prison

Opposition leader Victoire Ingabire is sentenced to eight years' imprisonment for treason and for aggravating genocide in 1994. She is acquitted of charges of terrorist crime. The trial has been ongoing since Ingabire returned from the country escape two years earlier (see April 2010). She was arrested after criticizing the Hutus who were killed during the 1994 genocide not mentioned in the country's official memorial of the genocide victims.

Rwanda becomes a member of the UN Security Council

Rwanda is elected as a temporary member of the UN Security Council in 2013 and 2014. The place accrues to the country more or less automatically, since Rwanda is the only candidate for East Africa's seat in the Council. The membership is expected to allow Rwanda to block any sanctions against representatives of the country.

New allegations of support for M23

New information leaked from a UN report claims that the M23 rebel movement in Congo-Kinshasa is in practice directly under the command of the Rwandan Defense Minister (see also June-July 2012). The UN report also designates Uganda to support the rebels. Both countries refute the allegations.

August

Collection from private individuals begins

The government is starting to raise money from private individuals, including Rwandans abroad, into a fund that will reduce dependence on foreign aid (see also Finance).

July

Western countries are withdrawing aid

The US withdraws its military aid to Rwanda as punishment for its suspected support for the M23 rebel group in Congo-Kinshasa. The annual sum has only reached US $ 200,000, but the decision is of great symbolic significance, as the United States has been Rwanda's most important Western partner. A few days later, the Netherlands, the UK and Germany freeze budget support for a total of over $ 56 million. The US government responsible for war crimes issues threatens that the United States may pull the Rwandan leadership before the International Criminal Court.

June

The gacaca courts are wound up

The Gacacao courts are wound up after handling nearly two million cases.

Rwanda is accused of supporting rebels

Human Rights Watch (HRW) accuses Rwanda of sending weapons and up to 300 soldiers to the M23 rebel group in eastern Congo-Kinshasa (see Congo-Kinshasa: Current Politics / Calendar). The government, for its part, accuses HRW of causing concern in the East by "spreading false rumors". The charges against Rwanda reappear in a UN report in which Rwandan military commanders are accused of being directly involved in the M23's establishment and subsequently assisting the group with equipment, logistics and recruitment.

January

Four military commanders are placed under house arrest

Four of the country's highest-ranking soldiers are suspended and placed under house arrest. They are reported to be the subject of an inquiry into participation in the looting of natural resources in Congo-Kinshasa (compare Foreign Policy and Defense).

 
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