San Marino's domestic policy has a tradition
of cross-border cooperation. Government coalitions
between right and left have been commonplace, and
political issues have often been resolved by consensus
During the 16th century, San Marino was ruled from
the Catholic Church Costume with the
Pope as supreme leader. In 1631, San Marino gained local
After Emperor Napoleon conquered the Italian
peninsula, San Marino came under the patronage of the
French Republic. After Napoleon's fall, the Church Cost
was restored in 1815, but since San Marino's status had
not been touched upon in the negotiations, local leaders
claimed that the area was now completely independent.
The church cost, however, wanted to maintain its
sovereignty over the area. The conflict lasted until
Italy was formed in 1861. San Marino then signed a
friendship agreement with Italy and succeeded in
consolidating its independence.
Comprehensive guide to and popular abbreviations of San Marino, covering history, economy, and social conditions.
During the First and Second World Wars, the country
remained neutral. However, the Allies bombed San Marino
on a couple of occasions during World War II, for which
the country later received financial compensation.
After the defeat of the fascists and the partisans'
fighting against the Nazi army in World War II, the left
parties were strong in Italy. This was also reflected in
San Marino. Between 1945 and 1957, the country was ruled
by a left-wing coalition between communists and
As the Cold War between the West and the East
intensified in the late 1940s, the irritation in Italy
increased over the fact that Communists sat in power in
San Marino. The government of Rome stopped paying the
financial contribution that San Marino received each
year as compensation for the country not having its own
customs duties and currency controls.
San Marino then decided, against Italy's will, to
open a casino, which turned out to generate good income.
Italy responded by introducing border controls and
preventing tourists from entering San Marino, and so
Italy got through its demand that the casino be closed.
After 1957, coalitions ruled with the participation
of both left and right parties. However, a communist-led
left coalition came to power in 1978, and it could sit
until 1986, when it was dissolved following allegations
of corruption in one of the government parties.
The Communist Party then formed
government together with the Christian Democrats,
a coalition that lasted until 1992. The Christian
Democrats, who were the leading bourgeois party, did not
want to continue cooperation with the Communists, who
despite the change of name to the Progressive
Democratic Party were considered to represent
the old kind of stiff communism in the social system.
Eastern Europe which dissolved around 1990.
The Christian Democrats instead entered into a
coalition with the Socialist Party, a
collaboration that eventually solidified and led to a
new election in 2001. The Christian Democrats were, as
before, largely followed by the Socialist Party and the
Democrats' Party. After the election,
the two largest parties again formed a coalition.
An important change in San Marino's party system took
place in 2005, when the two leading left parties formed
the Social Democratic Socialist and Democrats'
Party (PSD). In the 2006 parliamentary
elections, the Christian Democratic Party returned but
remained the largest party with one third of the vote.
The new left grouping PSD received almost as much but
still significantly less than the two parties had before
the merger. Many voters who were dissatisfied with the
party merger voted instead for smaller parties,
including a new Socialist Party and the remnants of the
old Communist Party, the United Left.
The new government, which was formed after the
elections, included the Social Democratic PSD, the
United Left and the center Party Folkliga
alliance (AP). Disputes within the coalition in
2008 led the AP to leave the government, which was
forced to resign after the PSD failed to create a new
After the AP joined the mid-right alliance
Pact for San Marino, this alliance was able to
win a majority in the 2008 parliamentary elections and
form government. The pact for San Marino included eight
parties but was dominated by the Christian Democrats and
the People's Alliance. The center-left
alliance Reforms and freedom, dominated
by the Socialist and Democrats' party,
lost the elections and ended in opposition.
The center-right government was forced to deal with a
dramatic decline in San Marino's economy in the wake of
the euro crisis in Italy, which led to tax increases