Iranian people have been in the areas around
today's Tajikistan for millennia, as have a number of
other ethnic groups. From the 7th century, Arabs came
and the population turned to Islam. After Mongol and
Uzbek rule, Russia came to dominate the area from the
19th century. When the Soviet Union was established
after 1917, the Russians created the new nation states
of Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Uzbekistan, Turkmenistan and
Tajikistan. A large part of the Tajik population ended
up outside Tajikistan.
Comprehensive guide to and popular abbreviations of Tajikistan, covering history, economy, and social conditions.
During the millennium immediately preceding our era,
the area between the Caspian Sea and the Pamir Mountains
was dominated by Iranian people. Samarkand eventually
became the leading city in the kingdom of Sogdiana.
Sogdiana covered what is today southeastern
Uzbekistan and western Tajikistan. The country became a
hub of caravan traffic between Europe and China along
the so-called Silk Road. The Persian New Year,
nouruz, is still celebrated today in Tajikistan at
the end of March.
In 329 BC, Samarkand fell for the Greek conqueror
Alexander the Great, but after his death his kingdom was
quickly divided. The next powerful state formation in
the area was called Kushana. It had its capital in Kabul
and extended into what is today Tajikistan. Kushana's
dominion was replaced by the Turks.
From the 7th century AD the Arabs entered the area.
Unlike previous conquerors, they did not accept that the
indigenous peoples stuck to their old religions. The
palaces and shrines that could bring thoughts away from
Islam were destroyed.
In 875, the Caliph in Baghdad provided the province
of Transoxania (today the area around Buchara, Samarkand
and western Tajikistan) as a loan to Nasr ibn Ahmad.
This belonged to the family of the Ancient times, which
is considered a Tajik dynasty. With the capital of
Buchara (in present-day Uzbekistan), the Sami rulers
came to rule independently until the year 999. They
stimulated the development of a Tajik literature that
today is also considered the cultural heritage of
Afghanistan and Iran.
The Arab regiment's tough regiment was met in the
area with firmer resistance and more insurgency than
before. The Arabs soon disappeared as an ethnic group,
but the Arabs remained alive, not only as the religious
language of Islam, but also as a written language in
administration and science. In contrast, it was Persian
and Turkish dialects that were widely spoken.
The Mongols who ruled during the 13th, 1300s, and
1400s did not have any bearing on linguistic
development. From the 16th century until the Russian
colonization, Uzbek, ie originally Turkish-speaking
dynasties ruled. However, Tajik remained for a long time
the language that the upper class formed was expected to
Today's national identities, which mainly combine an
original Persian culture with Turkish, were previously
not decisive for where the state borders were drawn.
There are many areas of mixed population in today's
Central Asian countries, such as around Uzbekistan's
capital Tashkent with both Uzbek, Kazakh and Kyrgyz
In 1868, the Khanate (Kingdom) of Buchara was forced
to resign, including the important city of Samarkand to
Russia. The Khanate, including most of what today
constitutes Tajikistan, was in practice transformed into
a Russian vassal state. Several revolts against the
Russian colonial power occurred during the second half
of the 19th century. The largest scale was raised in
1916, when all over Russian Central Asia turned to the
fact that the male population had been ordered to work
in Russia's war industry. The rebellion, during which
many Russians were murdered, was defeated by hard
methods, and about 450,000 nomads fled across the border
After the Russian Revolution of 1917, Tajikistan
became part of the Soviet Union. The contradictions
between Russians and Muslims were among the first
problems the new government in Moscow was forced to
address. By creating new nation states within the
borders of the Soviet Union, the Communists sought to
win the support of the Central Asian peoples for Soviet
society. In many areas, however, more than one people
was represented, so it became a delicate task to decide
exactly where the boundaries would be drawn. The new
Tajikistan became a unit of regions isolated from one
another by high mountains.
The last nominally sovereign kingdoms of Central
Asia, Chorezm south of the Aral Sea and Bukhara
(present-day eastern Uzbekistan and neighboring parts of
Tajikistan) were first joined to the Soviet Union in
1921, and the cities of Bukhara and Samarkand with a
large Tajik population ended up in Uzbekistan.
Opposition politicians are arrested abroad
Opposition leader Umarali Quvvatov is arrested in Dubai at the request of the
Tajik authorities, accused of fraud. Quvvatov, who formed the opposition
movement Group 24, claims that the charges against him are a
result of his fight against the regime. Quvvatov was previously a business
advisor to President Rahmon's abilities.
Internet sites are blocked
The authorities are ordering that 131 websites be blocked. This applies to
most music and video sites, but also to social forums such as Twitter.
Human rights organization is prohibited
A court in Chudzhand bans the human rights group Amparo, formed by young
lawyers. Amparo, often quoted by the UN, is investigating
abuse, torture charges and the treatment of soldiers.
Foreign study organizations are boycotted
The Ministry of Education instructs the country's universities to prohibit
students from participating in seminars and courses organized by foreign
Military agreement with Russia is extended
Tajikistan and Russia agree to extend the agreement for the Russian military
base by 30 years, until 2042. This will happen at a meeting in Dushanbe between
Rahmon and his Russian colleague Vladimir Putin.
Rebel leaders are killed
A rebel leader is said to have been killed in Köhistoni Badachsjon, leading
to protests from thousands of people accusing the government of breaking the
Struggles in the border province
Special forces enter the province of Köhistoni Badachsjon in the east at the
border with Afghanistan after a regional security chief was killed. Around 70
people are killed in the fighting, which is followed by a ceasefire agreement.
Export stop for Uzbek gas
Uzbekistan ceases all natural gas exports to Tajikistan.
Murder attempt on journalist in exile
Dodojon Atovulloyev, a Tajik journalist in exile in Moscow, is subjected to a
murder trial. Atovulloyev says the attack is a "political warning". The
government of Dushanbe has long been trying to get him extradited from Russia.