The flora of Albania has common characteristics with that of the western part of the Balkan Peninsula. In the lower region, up to around 600 m. the Mediterranean type prevails: there is the coastal zone of the dunes (Medicago, Ermyngium, Echinophora, etc.), the evergreen zone with scrub, agave and olive groves, and the wooded zone with a prevalence of Ilex. Between 600 and 1400 m. the submontane region stretches out, with broad-leaved woods (but now almost without evergreens) , with a formation of Syringa, Rhus, Cotinus, Crataegus, etc. and then with olive groves, fruit trees, cereals, tobacco. The mountainous region is very extensive, between 1,400 and 1700 m., With chestnut woods below, beeches and firs above; cereals (except maize) and potatoes are still grown here, no longer tobacco. Between 1800 and 2000 m., Depending on the latitude, the wood ceases as a continuous formation, to give way to alpine pastures. In the northern Albanian Alps and in the mountainous region of NE., Of karst aspect, the characteristic formations of central Europe soon take over from the Mediterranean ones, which instead have a large extension in central and southern Albania.
With regard to fauna, it is worth mentioning the frequency, among large carnivores, of wolves and jackals, not only in the mountainous regions, but also in the northern coastal zone. The bear, on the other hand, is much rarer, but is still found both in N., in Mirdizia, and in S., in the mountainous area of Voiussa and Suscizza. Wild boar is common in the woods of the northern hilly and mountainous regions; in the higher areas the chamois. The hare is widespread everywhere. A characteristic of Albania is the great wealth and variety of avifauna, which makes it a kind of paradise for hunters; marsh birds are naturally widespread in the coastal and sublittoral zone.
According to topschoolsintheusa, the quick sketch of the physical conditions made so far shows that, although Albania is a small country, nevertheless, for reasons of soil and climate, there are very great differences between its various parts, which is not the least cause of the difficulties of cementation of the new state. The mountainous regions of the North and the North, the most rugged and wild, form, as will be said later, as many closed cantons, of different sizes, each of which until recently lived almost a life of its own. The basin of Scutari with the coastal plain, crossed by the Drin and the Boiana, forms a completely different region which also lives a sort of life of its own. Central Albania, from Durres to Valona, from Tirana to Elbasan and Berat, a hilly country, furrowed by transversal valleys, easily accessible, it constitutes the most developed region and in some respects the most advanced, also due to the spread of crops and the ease of exchanges; but the river Shkumbî that crosses it, separating, as we shall see, the Gheghi from the Toschi, also determines in it some difference between the N. and the S. The longitudinal valley of the Black Drin forms yet another region in itself, almost isolated from the rest of Albania, in easy communication instead with the basins of the central Balkania. Southern Albania is characteristic for its parallel valleys, separated by rugged and inaccessible ridges, and shows great contrasts between the well-cultivated and inhabited valley bottoms, and the barren, poor mountains, where segregated very backward populations still live (Chimara, Kurvelesh) ; even the valleys do not represent a continuity; but they are broken in trunks by narrow gorges, sometimes impassable or almost. Finally to the SE. there is the region of large internal basins with a wide bottom, well cultivable, of which the largest is that of Còrizza, which, located at a very significant altitude (about 900 m.), forms the main center of this part of the country, and for the the healthiness of the climate and the fertility of the soil is also the most densely inhabited area.
This fragmentation of the country and the variability of its characters are reflected in the conditions of life and development of the residents, on their institutions and habits, as will emerge from the examination that we are preparing to do in the following paragraphs.