Georgia is an amazing country where different cultures, traditions and religions intersect. In this country, any tourist can find what he likes most – snow-capped peaks, the subtropical Black Sea coast with cypresses, firs and palm trees, unique mineral springs and balneological resorts, breathtaking landscapes with beautiful nature, ancient fortresses, as well as delicious cuisine..
Geography of Georgia
Georgia is located in the Caucasus at the crossroads of Western Asia and Eastern Europe. Georgia borders Russia in the north, Armenia and Turkey in the south, and Azerbaijan in the southeast. In the west, the Georgian shores are washed by the waters of the Black Sea. The total area of this country is 69,700 sq. km., and the total length of the state border is 1,461 km.
In the north of Georgia there is a mountain range of the Greater Caucasus Range. There are three mountains in Georgia, the height of which exceeds 5 thousand meters – Shkhara (5068 m), Dzhangitau (5059 m), Kazbek (5033 m). In the west of the country is the plain of Colchis.
Many beautiful rivers flow through the territory of Georgia. The largest of them are Kura (1,364 km), Tegri (623 km) and Chorokhi (438 km).
According to itypemba.com, the capital of Georgia is Tbilisi, which is now home to more than 1.2 million people. Historians claim that the settlement of people on the territory of modern Tbilisi existed 5 thousand years ago.
Official language of Georgia
The official language in Georgia is Georgian, belonging to the Kartvelian language family.
About 84% of the population of Georgia are Orthodox Christians belonging to the Georgian Orthodox Church, and another 9% of Georgians consider themselves Muslims (Shia).
State structure of Georgia
According to the current Constitution of 1995, Georgia is a presidential republic. Its head is the President, elected by the people for 5 years.
Legislative power in Georgia belongs to the unicameral Parliament (150 deputies). Members of Parliament are elected for a 4-year term.
The main political parties in Georgia are United National Movement, Georgian Dream – Democratic Georgia, Conservative Party, Republican Party, Our Georgia – Free Democrats.
Climate and weather
The climate in Georgia is very diverse. Conventionally, this country can be divided into two climatic zones – East and West. The Greater Caucasus Range protects Georgia from the cold wind from the north, and the Lesser Caucasus mountain system from the south.
Most of Western Georgia (Batumi) is in a subtropical humid climate. The wettest region in Georgia is Adjara, where an average of 5,500 mm of precipitation falls annually.
In Eastern Georgia, the climate is transitional from humid subtropical to continental. The weather in this region is influenced by air from the Caspian and Black Seas. Annually, 400 – 1,600 mm of precipitation falls here.
The average annual air temperature in Tbilisi is +13.3C. In July and August, the average air temperature in Georgia is +31C, and in January – -2C.
Sea in Georgia
In the west, the Georgian shores are washed by the waters of the Black Sea. The coastline is 310 km. Most of the Black Sea coast in Georgia is a resort area.
Rivers and lakes
Many rivers flow through the territory of Georgia. The largest of them are Kura (1,364 km), Tegri (623 km), Chorokhi (438 km) and Alazani (351 km). As for the lakes in Georgia, the largest of them are Paravani, Kartsakhi and Paleostomi.
History of Georgia
The history of Georgia is an endless series of wars, uprisings and revolutions. The territory on which Georgia is located (between the Black and Caspian Seas) has attracted various conquerors for many centuries. Georgia has always been involved in the sphere of economic and political interests of large states. Georgia is a relatively young state, formed in the 10th century, but its history began long before that….
The history of Georgian statehood begins with the appearance of Colchis and the Iberian kingdom. So. Colchis was formed in the 6th century AD.
In the 10th century, King Bagrat III united the eastern and western parts of Georgia into a single state. It reached its peak in the 12th century during the reign of King David the Builder. In the 13th century, the Tatar-Mongols invaded Georgia, and in the 15th century, the troops of Timur.
In the XVIII-XIX centuries, Georgia gradually became part of the Russian Empire. But only in the 1870s, the troops of the Ottoman Empire were finally expelled from Georgia.
In 1918, Georgia became part of the Transcaucasian Democratic Federative Republic, and in 1936 – part of the USSR.
Georgia’s independence was proclaimed in 1991. In 1992 Georgia became a member of the UN.
For many centuries, winemaking has been not only the basis of Georgia’s economic wealth, but also a part of its spiritual culture. Wine for Georgians is not just a drink. Wine in Georgia is more like a religion. The vine is often mentioned in Georgian legends and songs.
Hospitality traditions are very strong in Georgia. Previously, Georgian houses even had special rooms for guests (or separate houses), where any guest could enter, eat and spend the night there.
Each Georgian holiday must go in a certain order. This is followed by a special person – toastmaster. According to tradition, the master of the house should be the host himself or he should be chosen from among the most respected guests.
Georgian traditions, as well as Georgian hospitality, are reflected in wedding customs. A lot of guests need to be invited to a Georgian wedding (sometimes their number reaches several hundred). Refusing to come to a wedding is an insult to the inviting party, and because of this, a blood feud can begin.
Cuisine of Georgia
Perhaps some tourists who have visited Georgia will say that its main attraction is the local Georgian cuisine. The traditional Georgian feast is an integral part of Georgian culture.
Georgians love and know how to cook meat. Dishes such as shish kebab, “chicken tobacco”, chikhirtma and chakhokhbili have long gained popularity in various countries of the world.
A distinctive feature of Georgian cuisine is a large number of sauces. The same dish in Georgia can be served with different sauces, and it will differ not only in appearance, but also in taste and aroma. Sauces in Georgia are made from berries, fruits, tomato, pomegranate, blackberry, barberry, which are boiled and then mixed with vinegar and spices.
Another distinctive feature of Georgian cuisine is the abundance of cheeses. Each region in Georgia boasts its own traditional type of cheese. The most famous varieties of cheese are Suluguni, Kobisky and Chanakh.
For cooking, Georgians often use nuts – almonds, hazelnuts and walnuts.
A very important element of Georgian cuisine is spices. They are used for breakfast, lunch and dinner. The most popular spices (depending on the season) are parsley, dill, wild garlic, mint, basil, savory, tarragon, etc.
On the Georgian table, next to the meat, there must always be vegetables and herbs. Most vegetable dishes are prepared with eggplant, beans, cabbage, beets and tomatoes. So, in Georgian cuisine there are several dozen eggplant dishes.
Soups are very popular in Georgia, which can be meat, vegetarian and dairy. Soup in Georgia is usually cooked without vegetables, and, of course, seasoned with a sauce with flour or eggs.
Instead of bread in Georgia, gomi is used, a very thick corn porridge, as well as “shoti” (white leavened bread) and “mchadi” (corn cakes).
Tourists in Georgia are recommended to try churchkhela, a local sweet made from walnuts covered with grape juice.
A Georgian feast cannot be imagined without wine. Georgian wines are known in many countries of the world. The most popular Georgian wines are Khvanchkara, Kindzmarauli, Saperavi, Tvishi and Tsinandali.
Sights of Georgia
According to official data, there are now more than 10 thousand historical, architectural and archaeological monuments in Georgia. The Top 10 best Georgian attractions, in our opinion, may include the following:
- Svetitskhoveli Cathedral in Mtskheta
- Sioni Cathedral in Tbilisi
- Church of St. Mary in Tbilisi
- Gremi Citadel on the Intsoba River
- Monastery Shio-Mgvime
- Jvari Church in Mtskheta
- Ananuri Fortress
- Akhali Shuamta Nunnery
- Khertvisi Fortress
- Samtavro Convent
Cities and resorts
The largest Georgian cities are Batumi, Rustavi, Kutaisi, Zugdidi, Poti, Gori, and, of course, Tbilisi.
On the Black Sea coast in Georgia there are several excellent beach resorts – Batumi, Zeleny Mys, Mikhinjauri, Ord, Kobuletti, Tsikhisdziri, Ureki. The best Georgian beaches are located in Adjara, which is located in a subtropical humid climate. Almost the entire coastline of Adjara is a beautiful long beach, on the banks of which palm trees, firs and cypresses grow.
Georgia is famous not only for its beaches, but also for its balneological resorts. Today there are about 2 thousand thermal and mineral springs in Georgia. Moreover, more than 20 of them are large mineral springs (as in Borjomi). The most famous balneological Georgian resorts are Borjomi, Tsikhisdziri, Tskhaltubo, Mukhuri, Beshumi, Abastumani, Shovi, Zekari.
Georgia cannot be imagined without ski resorts. The most famous of them are Bakuriani, Gudauri, Bakhmaro. The skiing season in Georgia usually lasts from December to April.
Tourists from Georgia usually bring folk art products, a wine horn, scarves, icons, Georgian cheese, Georgian wine, churchkhela, spices (hops-suneli, cilantro, Imeretian saffron), sauces (adjika, tkemali).
Ukrainians do not need to apply for a visa to visit Georgia (if the trip does not exceed 90 days).
Since 1995, the lari has been in circulation in Georgia (its international designation: GEL). One lari = 100 tetri. Credit cards are accepted, basically, only by prestigious hotels and restaurants in Tbilisi.
You can import foreign currency into Georgia without restrictions (export – too, but if 1 year has not passed since arrival in the country). The national currency in Georgia can be imported in the amount of up to 25 thousand lari, and exported – up to 3 thousand lari. If you need to bring more than 25 thousand GEL into Georgia, then you need to explain the origin of this money.
Tourists should be aware that one person from Georgia has the right to take out no more than 5 bottles of wine.
Useful phone numbers and addresses
Address of the Embassy of Georgia in Ukraine:
Postcode: 01132, Kiev, Taras Shevchenko Boulevard, 25 T
: (044) 220-03-40
Email: [email protected]
Address of the Embassy of Ukraine in Georgia:
Index: 380060, Tbilisi, Oniashvili St., 75
T: (8 10 99532)
31-11-61 mail: [email protected]
01 – Fire brigade call
02 – Police call
03 – Ambulance call
The difference with Ukrainian time is +2 hours. those. if in Tbilisi, for example, it is 09:00 am, then in Kyiv or, for example, in Donetsk, it is 07:00 am.
It is believed that the service charge (5-10%) is already included in the bill in Georgian hotels, restaurants, bars.
No special vaccinations are required to enter Georgia.
Violent crimes in Georgia against foreign tourists are very rare. In general, Georgians are very hospitable and friendly people. Of course, this does not mean that in Georgia there is no need to think about personal security. In this country, for example, there are pickpockets.