Sometimes Germany is called, and very often, “Land of poets and thinkers”, which aptly characterizes this country, located in the very center of Europe. The Germans carefully preserve their traditions, which have almost a thousand years of history. Apparently, because of this, tens of millions of tourists visit Germany every year. Moreover, about 10 million tourists come to Berlin every year. Such statistics are quite understandable, given that Germany has a lot of interesting sights, balneological resorts and high-class ski slopes in the Alps.
Geography of Germany
Germany is located in Central Europe. In the north, this country borders with Denmark, in the east – with the Czech Republic and Poland, in the south – with Austria and Switzerland, and in the west – with Luxembourg, the Netherlands, France and Belgium. Germany is washed in the northwest by the Baltic Sea, and in the northeast by the North Sea. The total area of this country is 357,021 km2. sq. The highest point in Germany is the Zugspitze mountain in the Alps (2962 meters).
Germany will become an interesting place where you can go to rest in Europe for the New Year.
There are a lot of rivers in Germany, the longest of which are the Rhine, Elbe, Weser, Danube and Oder.
According to itypejob.com, the capital of Germany is Berlin. The history of this city begins around the first half of the 13th century. Now the population of Berlin already exceeds 3.5 million people.
Official language of Germany
In Germany, the official language is German, which is the Germanic branch of the Indo-European languages.
The main religion in Germany is Christianity (about 63% of the population). 30% of Christians in Germany are Catholics and 29.9% are Protestants. Catholics mainly live in the south and west of Germany, while Protestants live in the north and east.
1.6% of the German population consider themselves Orthodox Christians, while about 5% are Muslims (mostly Sunnis). There are many atheists in East Germany and in metropolitan areas.
According to computerminus.com, Germany is a federal parliamentary republic. The head of state is the president (he is elected by the Federal Assembly, which includes members of the Bundestag and state delegates). There are 16 federal (autonomous) states in Germany.
The second highest official in Germany is the Bundestagspräsident, who is elected by the Bundestag (Parliament).
The main political parties in Germany are the Social Democratic Party of Germany, the Christian Social Union, the SPD, the Christian Democratic Union, the Party of Democratic Socialism, the Union 90/Greens and the Free Democratic Party of Germany.
Climate and weather
In Germany, the climate is mainly temperate continental with warm summers and rather cold winters (quite noticeable temperature fluctuations are typical). Northwest Germany and the coastal regions have a maritime climate with warm summers and mild, cloudy winters. In the south of the country the climate is mountainous with low temperatures and heavy rainfall.
The average air temperature in Germany is about +9 C. In January, which is the coldest month, the average annual temperature in the north is about +1.6 C, and in the south -2 C. In July, the warmest month, the average annual the temperature in the north is +16-18 C, and in the south – +19.4 C.
Every year in Germany falls on average about 400-600 mm of precipitation.
Sea in Germany
Germany is washed by the waters of the North (in the north-west) and Baltic (in the north-east) seas. The total coastline is 2,389 km.
The largest German island is the island of Rügen, which is located in the Baltic Sea. Its area reaches 926 km. sq. About 75 thousand people now live on this island. Another large German island is Femern (also located in the Baltic Sea).
Rivers and lakes
Most rivers in Germany empty into the North Sea. These are the rivers Rhine, Ems, Weser, Saale and Elbe. The Oder flows into the Baltic Sea.
The largest rivers in Germany are, as you probably know, the Rhine and the Danube. On the border of Germany in the foothills of the Alps is Lake Constance – the largest lake in Germany. Its area is 536 km. sq. In general, there are a lot of lakes in Germany, among which the Chiemsee, Wannsee, Eibsee, and Langer Waldsee should definitely be mentioned.
History of Germany
Germanic tribes came to the territory of modern Germany from Scandinavia around 100 BC. The Germanic tribes living to the east of the Rhine, after some time fell under the rule of Ancient Rome, and the tribes to the west of the Rhine gave a worthy rebuff to the Romans, and lived freely.
Around 800 AD Charlemagne formed the Carolingian Empire, and Germany became part of it. In the X century, the Holy Roman Empire appeared, formed around the German lands.
During the time of the Hohenstaufen emperors (1138-1254), the lands in the east, inhabited by Slavs, were annexed to Germany.
In 1517, under the influence of Martin Luther, the Reformation of the Catholic Church began in Germany, as a result of which several Protestant churches appeared, including the Lutheran Church.
In 1806, the Holy Roman Empire, which consisted mainly of German and Austrian lands, was occupied by the armies of the French Emperor Bonaparte. After the end of the Napoleonic Wars, the German Confederation was formed (it included 39 sovereign German states).
In 1871, the German Empire, headed by Emperor Wilhelm I, was proclaimed in the French Versailles. Prussia played a decisive role in Germany at that time.
After World War I, Germany’s Emperor Wilhelm II (in 1918) abdicated, forcing the country to sign the Treaty of Versailles, which historians believe sparked World War II.
In the first half of the 1930s, Adolf Hitler and the National Socialist German Workers’ Party came to power in Germany. Events developed in such a way that the Second World War could no longer be avoided, and it began on September 1, 1939. This most bloody war in the history of mankind lasted for six years. As a result, Germany was defeated, and was divided into two parts – East (GDR) and West (FRG) Germany.
In 1989, under the influence of many factors (including due to interference in its internal affairs by some capitalist states), the Communist Party was liquidated in the GDR, after which the Berlin Wall was destroyed, and Germany was unified (this happened in October 1990).
Now Germany is part of the NATO military-political bloc and is a member of the European Union.
Culture of Germany
The history of Germany goes back many hundreds of years, and therefore the Germans, of course, have a very rich culture, which had (and continues to do so) a great influence on the culture of neighboring peoples (Austrians, Dutch and Swiss).
Thanks to Germany, the world received a large number of brilliant writers, artists, philosophers and scientists:
- Literature (Goethe, Schiller, Heine, Thomas Mann, Kafka, Erich Maria Remarque);
- Classical music (Bach, Beethoven, Mozart and Richard Wagner);
- Art (Kolwitz, Dürer and Paul Klee);
- Psychology (Jung);
- Philosophy (Kant, Schopenhauer and Friedrich Nietzsche);
- Science (Einstein, Kepler, Roentgen, Planck and Virchow).
In general, some literary critics call Germany the “Land of poets and thinkers.” Judging by the number of poets and philosophers born in Germany, this name is true.
Germany cannot be imagined without traditional German holidays and festivals. The most popular and famous of them are the Oktoberfest beer festival in Munich, Walpurgis Night, the Love Parade (July), the M’era Luna music festival in Hildesheim (August), the Wave-Gotik-Treffen gothic art and music festival in Leipzig (August), Nibelungen Festival (August) and Kiel Week (July).
Germany is made up of several dozen formerly independent principalities, and this means that there is great regional diversity in German cuisine.
Some tourists believe that German cuisine contains a lot of heavy and fatty dishes, and they may be right about something, but this has changed in the last 200 years. Thanks to the influence of the Italians and the French, German cuisine has become more refined and sophisticated. So, the cuisine of the southern lands of Germany (Bavaria and Swabia) was greatly influenced by the culinary traditions of Switzerland and Austria.
Tourists in Germany are advised to definitely try various German sausages, sausages, schnitzels, cutlets and steaks, as well as the following traditional dishes: German sausage soup, Eintopf Pichelstein, pork roll, Saxon-style potato soup, Wismar-style fish, goulash with lecho, German-style herring, Berlin-style apple pie, and speculatio biscuits.
The national alcoholic drink in Germany is beer. The Germans produce a wide variety of beers, and in huge quantities. Moreover, the strength of beer can reach up to 12% alcohol.
Germany also produces excellent wine (mostly white). The main German wine regions are the Aar, Baden, Württemberg, Mosel, and Rheinhessen.
Sightseeings of Germany
In Germany, they are very careful about their history. Now in this country there are about 4,700 museums that store unique archaeological, historical and ethnographic artifacts. There are so many attractions in Germany that we will highlight ten of the best of them, in our opinion:
- Brandenburg Gate (located in Berlin)
- “Romantic road”, 350 km long
- Cologne Cathedral
- Church of Our Lady (Frauenkirche) in Dresden
- “Black Forest” in Baden-Württemberg
- Medieval Holstentor gate in Lübeck
- Neuschwanstein Castle (located in Bavaria)
- Chalk cliffs in Jasmund National Park
- heidelberg castle
- Sanssouci Palace in Potsdam
Cities and resorts
The largest German cities are Berlin (about 3.5 million people), Hamburg (about 1.8 million people), Munich (more than 1.5 million people), and Cologne (1.1 million people) The main ports are Frankfurt am Main, Lübeck and Husum.
There are many ski and medical (balneological and mud) resorts in Germany. Ski resorts are located in the Alps on the border with Austria. The most popular of them are Garmisch-Partenkirchen, Berchtesgaden Region (Berchtesgaden, Schönau an der Königssee, Bischofswiesen, Marktschellenberg and Rams) and Oberstdorf.
The most famous German spas are Bad Homburg in Hesse, Bad Kissingen in Bavaria, Bad Reichenhall in Berchtesgaden and, of course, Baden-Baden.
We advise tourists from Germany to bring:
- Beer mugs and glasses;
- Wine glasses;
- Traditional German hats;
- German toys;
- Football souvenirs;
- Porcelain dolls in unmarked national costumes;
- Ship models (they are sold in Hamburg);
- German wines (we recommend paying attention to Affentaler Spätburgunder);
- German beer.
Mon-Fri: from 8:30 to 16.00, some – until 17:30
Mon-Fri: from 08:00 to 18:00
Sat: from 08:00 to 12:00
Mon-Fri: from 09:00 to 17:00
Mon-Sat: from 08:30 to 18:00
Ukrainians need a visa to enter Germany.
In Germany, the euro replaced the Deutsche Mark in 2002.
Banknotes are used: 5, 10, 20, 50, 100, 200, as well as 500 euros.
As for coins, the following are used in Germany:
- 1 and 2 euro
- 1, 2, 5, 10, 20 and also 50 cents
Credit cards (most commonly EC/Maestro and Visa) and travelers checks are accepted.
You can bring currency into Germany without any restrictions. If you want to bring more than 15 thousand euros into Germany, you need to enter them in the declaration and explain their origin.
Ukrainians can import to Germany duty-free:
- 200 cigarettes;
- 100 thin cigars;
- 50 cigars;
- 200 g of tobacco;
- 1 liter of vodka or cognac;
- 2 liters of champagne or wine;
- 0.5 kg of coffee beans;
- 50 ml of perfume (or, optionally, 250 ml of toilet water).
Fighting dog breeds, including the American Bulldog, Mastiff and Bullmastiff, are not allowed to be brought into Germany.
Art objects from Germany can only be exported with a special permit.
Useful phone numbers and addresses
Embassy of Germany in Ukraine:
01901, Kiev, st. B. Khmelnitsky, 25
Tel.: (044) 216 67 94
Fax: (044) 216 23 89
Embassy of Ukraine in Germany:
Address: Deutschland, 10117, Berlin-Mitte, Albrechtstrasse 26
Phones: (10-4930) 288 87 116
Fax: (10-4930) 288 87 163
E-mail: [email protected]
Police – 110
Fire and medical assistance – 112
Crime Victim Hotline – 0800 0800 343
The entire territory of Germany is in the Central European time zone. The difference with Kyiv time is 1 hour. Those. if in Berlin, for example, 9:00 am, then in Kyiv – 10:00 am.
In Germany, tips in restaurants, bars and taxis usually make up 10-15% of the bill, although usually tips in restaurants are already included in the bill. In a taxi, you can round up the bill (of course, up). If the taxi driver helps you with your luggage, you can give him 1 euro.
No special vaccinations are required to enter Germany. There are practically no serious contagious diseases in Germany. To obtain a visa to Germany, you must have a medical insurance policy.
In Germany, the crime rate is not very high, but foreign tourists should still be wary of electronic fraud and pickpocketing (especially in big cities and at railway stations).
We advise tourists in Germany to leave documents and valuables in the hotel safe. Never leave your luggage and documents in the car.
If you are a victim of a crime in Germany, be sure to call the free police number – 110.