At the end of the 9th century, the Magyar tribes from Western Siberia moved to the Danube, thus beginning the formation of the state of Hungary. Modern Hungary is annually visited by millions of tourists to see the numerous Hungarian historical monuments, visit the famous local balneological resorts, and swim in the waters of the “Hungarian Sea”, as Lake Balaton is sometimes called.
Be sure to visit Hungary, because this is a country where you can go without a visa.
Geography of Hungary
Hungary is located in Central Europe, in the north it borders with Slovakia, in the east – with Romania and Ukraine, in the south – with Serbia, Croatia, and in the west – with Slovenia and Austria. The total area of this country is 93,030 square kilometers, and the total length of the state border is 2,242 km.
A significant part of the territory of Hungary is located on the Middle Danube Plain. This means that most of the territory of Hungary has a flat relief. In the north of Hungary is the Matra mountain range. It is there that tourists can see the highest Hungarian mountain – Kekes, whose height is 1,014 m.
The Danube flows through the entire territory of Hungary from north to south. Another largest river in Hungary is the Tisza.
Hungary is famous for its lakes, of which there are a lot. The most famous of them is Lake Balaton, whose area is 594 square meters. km, as well as lakes Velence and Ferte.
According to itypejob.com, the capital of Hungary is Budapest, which currently has a population of almost 1.9 million people. The history of Budapest begins in the 1st century. BC. – Then there was a settlement of the Celts on this place.
Official language of Hungary
In Hungary, the official language is Hungarian, which, according to linguists, belongs to the Ugric group, which is part of the Uralic language family.
The main religion in Hungary is Christianity. About 68% of the population of Hungary are Catholics, 21% are Calvinists (a branch of Protestantism), 6% are Lutherans (a branch of Protestantism).
State structure of Hungary
According to computerminus.com, Hungary is a parliamentary republic. Legislative power is vested in the unicameral parliament, the National Assembly, which has 386 members. Since 2012, Hungary has a new constitution.
The head of state is the President, who is elected by the National Assembly.
Hungary consists of 19 regions, as well as Budapest, which is considered a separate administrative region.
Climate and weather
The climate in Hungary is continental with cold, snowy winters and warm summers. In the south of Hungary, near the city of Pecs, the climate is Mediterranean. The average annual temperature is +9.7C. The average temperature in summer is from +27C to +35C, and in winter – from 0 to -15C.
About 600 mm of precipitation falls annually in Hungary.
Rivers and lakes
The Danube River flows through Hungary for 410 km. The main tributaries of the Danube are Raba, Drava, Sio and Ipel. Another largest river in Hungary is the Tisza with its tributaries Samos, Krasna, Koros, Maros, Hernad and Sayo.
Hungary is famous for its lakes, of which there are a lot. The most famous of them are Lake Balaton, as well as lakes Velence and Ferte.
The length of the coastline of Lake Balaton, which, by the way, the Hungarians themselves call the “Hungarian Sea”, is 236 km. There are 25 species of fish in Balaton, storks, swans, ducks and wild geese live near it. Now Lake Balaton is an excellent beach and spa resort.
We also note another famous Hungarian lake – Heviz. This lake is a popular balneological resort.
History of Hungary
Celtic tribes lived on the territory of modern Hungary BC. In 9 BC Hungary (Pannonia) became a province of Ancient Rome. Later the Huns, Ostrogoths and Lombards lived here. At the end of the 9th century, the territory of modern Hungary was settled by the Magyars (Hungarians)
Most scientists believe that the homeland of modern Hungarians is located somewhere in Western Siberia. This theory is confirmed by the fact that the Hungarian language belongs to the Ugric group, which is part of the Uralic language family. Those. Hungarian is similar to Finnish and Estonian.
In 895 AD The Magyars created a federation of tribes, thus forming their own state.
The heyday of medieval Hungary began under King Stephen the Holy (about 1000 AD), when the country was officially recognized as a Catholic apostolic kingdom. After some time, Croatia, Slovakia and Transylvania were annexed to Hungary.
The Hungarian king Bela III had an annual income of 23 tons of pure silver. For comparison, at that time the annual income of the French king was 17 tons of silver.
In 1241-1242, the Tatar-Mongols invaded the territory of Hungary, which, however, could not subdue the Hungarians.
Since the end of the XIV century, the Hungarians waged constant bloody wars against the Ottoman Empire. In 1526, after the defeat at Mohacs, the Hungarian king became a vassal of the Turkish sultan.
Only in 1687 the Turks were driven out of Hungary, and this country began to belong to Austria, i.e. Habsburgs. In 1867, the Austro-Hungarian Empire was formed, in which the Hungarians actually received equal rights with the Austrians.
After the end of World War I, in 1918, the Hungarian Soviet Republic was proclaimed in Hungary, which lasted until August 1919.
During World War II, Hungary fought on the side of Germany. After the end of World War II, the Hungarian People’s Republic was proclaimed (this happened in August 1949).
In 1990, the first elections on a multi-party basis were held in Hungary, and the Republic of Hungary appeared on the political map of the world.
Hungarians are very proud of their culture, which differs markedly from the cultures of neighboring countries. The fact is that the Hungarians (Magyars) are an alien people in Europe who moved to the territory of modern Hungary from Western Siberia in the 9th century.
The culture of the Hungarians was significantly influenced by the Ottoman Empire, as well as Austria. This is understandable, because Hungary was for a long time actually a province of these empires. Nevertheless, the Magyars (Hungarians) still remain a distinctive people.
The most famous folk traditional holiday in Hungary is Farsang (Shrovetide), which has been held since the Middle Ages. Shrove Tuesday is celebrated especially splendidly in Sharköz. it is believed that “real” Hungarians live in this region, whose ancestors came to the Danube in the 9th century from Western Siberia. During Maslenitsa, before the onset of Lent, Hungarian youth walks the streets in scary masks and sings playful songs.
Every February, Budapest hosts the Mangalica festival with numerous competitions, exhibitions and tastings of Hungarian cuisine. The fact is that mangalica is a famous breed of Hungarian pigs.
Hungarian architecture is closely associated with the name of Odon Lechner, who at the end of the 19th century created the national Hungarian architectural style.
Among the Hungarian poets and writers, Shandror Petofi, Shandor Maraya and Peter Esterházy should definitely be singled out. In 2002, the Hungarian contemporary writer Imre Kertész received the Nobel Prize in Literature.
The most famous Hungarian composer is Franz Liszt (1811-1886), who founded the Weimar School of Music. Other Hungarian musicians and composers include Bela Bartok and Zoltan Kodaly.
Cuisine of Hungary
Hungarian cuisine is as special as the culture of Hungarians. The main ingredients of Hungarian dishes are vegetables, meat, fish, sour cream, onion and ground red pepper. In the 1870s, pig breeding began to develop actively in Hungary, and now pig meat is traditional for Hungarian cuisine.
Perhaps someone will say that the famous goulash glorified Hungarian cuisine, but there are many more traditional delicious dishes in Hungary. Tourists in Hungary are advised to definitely try halasle fish soup, chicken with pepper, potato paprikash, trout with almonds, fried pork with sauerkraut, lecho, salty and sweet dumplings, bean soup and much more.
Hungary is famous for its wines (for example, “Tokay wine”), but good beer is also produced in this country. By the way, in recent years, for some reason, Hungarians began to drink more beer, not wine.
Tourists in Hungary are advised to try (in small quantities, of course) palinka – fruit vodka. Most often it has the taste of plum, apricot and cherry.
Sights of Hungary
Hungary is a real “treasure” for tourists who love sightseeing tours. This country has a large number of historical monuments, among which there are about 1 thousand palaces and medieval fortresses. The top ten attractions in Hungary, in our opinion, include the following:
- Buda Castle in Budapest
- Lake Balaton
- Fisherman’s Bastion in Budapest
- Stephen’s Basilica in Budapest
- Karst caves of Aggtelek on the border with Slovakia
- Hollokö village 90 km from Budapest
- Hortobagy National Park
- Benedictine monastery in Pannonhalma
- City of Eger
- Monument “Shoes” on the Danube Embankment in Budapest
Cities and resorts
Many of the Hungarian cities were formed on the site of Roman settlements. This is how Pécs and Szekesfehervar appeared, which are now considered the most ancient cities in Hungary.
At the moment, the largest Hungarian cities are Budapest (1.9 million people), Debrecen (210 thousand people), Miskolc (170 thousand people), Szeged (more than 170 thousand people), Pecs (about 170 thousand people).. people), Gyor (130 thousand people), Niredyhaza (120 thousand people), Kecskemét (110 thousand people) and Szekesfehervar (about 110 thousand people).
Hungary is famous for its balneological resorts, among which the most popular are Heviz, Hajdúszoboszló, Count Szechenyi Baths, Sarvar on the banks of the Raba River and Balatonfüred. In general, in Hungary there are about 1.3 thousand mineral springs that can be used for medicinal purposes.
A popular beach resort in Hungary is Lake Balaton, although balneological (thermal) resorts are also located here. On the banks of the Lake Balaton there are such popular resorts as Balatonfured, Keszthely and Siofok.
Tourists from Hungary are advised to bring:
- Paprika (red ground pepper);
- Palinka (fruit vodka made from plums, apricots or cherries);
- Embroidery, including tablecloths, bed linen, towels, napkins and clothes;
- Porcelain (the most famous Hungarian porcelain factories are Herend and Zsolnay);
- Dried meat (especially pork mangalitsa).
Shop opening hours:
Mon-Fri: from 9.00 to 18.00
Sat: from 9.00 to 13.00
Large supermarkets are open around the clock, and some of them are also open on Sundays.
Mon-Fri: from 08:00 to 15:00
Sat: from 08:00 to 13:00
To enter Hungary, Ukrainians need to apply for a visa.
Currency of Hungary
The forint is the official currency of Hungary. The international symbol for the forint is HUF. One forint is equal to 100 fillers, but now the filler is no longer used.
In Hungary, banknotes of the following denominations are used: 100, 200, 500, 1000, 2000, 5000, 10000 and 20,000 forints. In addition, there are coins in circulation in denominations of 1, 2, 5, 10, 20, 50, 100 forints.
Most often, hotels, shops and restaurants in Hungary accept Visa, MasterCard and American Express cards for payment.
In Hungary, the import and export of local and foreign currency is not limited. Ukrainians can bring into Hungary (because Ukraine is not part of the EU):
- 200 cigarettes;
- 100 thin cigars;
- 50 cigars;
- 250 gr. tobacco;
- 1 liter of strong alcoholic drinks;
- 1 liter of liquor;
- 4 liters of table wine.
Medicines can only be imported for personal use. You can bring in personal belongings of a non-commercial nature up to 430 euros. Pets that are brought into Hungary must have a veterinary certificate.
Ukrainians are not allowed to import meat and milk into Hungary. In addition, it is forbidden to import ivory, tortoise shells, corals, etc. into Hungary.
For the export of objects of history or art from Hungary, you must obtain a special permit.
Useful phone numbers and addresses
Embassy of Hungary in Ukraine
Address: 01034, Kiev, st. Reytarskaya, 33
Phone: (044) 230-80-01
Fax: (044) 272-20-90
E-mail: [email protected]
Embassy of Ukraine in Hungary
Address: 1125, Budapest, st. Ishtenkhedi, 84/B (XII district)
Phone: (061) 422-41-20
Fax: (061) 220-98-73
E-mail: [email protected]
Ambulance – 104
Fire department – 105
Police – 107
General help – 112
Time – 188
Car assistance – 188
The entire territory of Hungary is in the Central European time zone. The difference with Kyiv time is 1 hour. Those. if in Budapest, for example, it is 9:00 am, then in Kyiv it is 10:00 am.
In Hungary, tips in restaurants and taxis are usually 10% of the bill (15% is already a generous tip). Service staff in hotels expect a tip of 100 forints, gas station employees receive 100-200 forints in the form of tips.
To enter the territory of Hungary, Ukrainians need medical insurance. If an accident happens to foreigners in Hungary, they are provided with emergency medical care, which then must be paid for, however, as well as the treatment itself.
Hungary, in general, is a safe country. However, petty crimes (such as theft) happen there as well. Tourists are advised to beware of pickpocketing.