Indonesia is a country located on many tropical islands. Each Indonesian island has its own unique culture, architecture, people and traditions. Indonesia has it all – jungles, rainforests, lakes, active volcanoes and, of course, paradise beaches. In Indonesia, you will meet friendly people, and you will also be able to see the sunrise over the most beautiful Buddhist temples.
Geography of Indonesia
Indonesia is located in Southeast Asia and Oceania. Indonesia is an archipelago, which includes more than 17.5 thousand islands of the Indian and Pacific Oceans, including Kalimantan, Sumatra, Java, and New Guinea (only 6 thousand of them are inhabited). Indonesia shares borders with Malaysia, East Timor and Papua New Guinea. Other nearby countries are Singapore, Philippines, Palau and Australia. The total area of this country is 1,919,440 sq. km.
A significant part of the territory of the islands that make up Indonesia is occupied by mountains. The largest local peak is Mount Punchak Jaya on the island of New Guinea, which reaches a height of 4,884 meters.
The geographical position of Indonesia determines that this country has very strong seismic and volcanic activity. those. Indonesia often experiences earthquakes and volcanic eruptions. However, special services can already predict all these cataclysms. In general, there are now about 150 active volcanoes in Indonesia, including the “famous” Krakatau and Tambora.
On the island of Kalimantanu there are three largest rivers in Indonesia – Mahakam, Barito and Kapuas.
According to itypemba.com, the capital of Indonesia is Jakarta, which is now home to more than 9.7 million people. Archaeologists claim that a human settlement on the site of modern Jakarta existed already in the 1st century AD. However, the city itself was officially founded in 1527.
The official language in Indonesia is Indonesian, which belongs to the Austronesian language family.
More than 88% of Indonesia’s population is Muslim (mostly Sunni Muslim). About 8% of the population of this country identify themselves as Christians.
State structure of Indonesia
According to equzhou.net, Indonesia is a parliamentary republic. Its head is the President, elected for 5 years.
The parliament in Indonesia is bicameral – the People’s Consultative Congress, consisting of the Council of People’s Representatives (560 deputies) and the Council of Representatives of the Regions (132 deputies). The country’s parliament has the right to impeach the president.
The main political parties in Indonesia are the Democratic Party, the Golkar Party, the Indonesian Democratic Party of Struggle, the Justice and Welfare Party, and the National Mandate Party.
Climate and weather in Indonesia
The climate in Indonesia is equatorial with elements of subequatorial. In general, Indonesia is very hot and humid. The average annual air temperature is +27.7C. The average annual rainfall is 1,755 mm. The rainy season in this country is from October to April. However, there are also rains in the so-called. “dry season”.
Some travelers like to relax in Indonesia during the rainy season (October-April). At this time, it usually rains in Indonesia in the evening for no more than 2 hours. The rest of the time, Indonesia is very hospitable. During this season, as a rule, hotel prices in Indonesia are much lower than during the dry season.
In Sumatra and Java, the rainy season lasts from November to March (rain falls in the afternoon). The best time to travel to Java or Sumatra is May-September.
In Bali, the rainy season is from October to March. However, in Bali, there is a lot of sun and bright blue skies between the rain shower. Therefore, in Bali you can relax in the rainy season. The best months to visit Bali are from May to August.
Sulawesi Island, an amazing place for a beach holiday, has two opposite climatic zones. In the southwest of this island, the monsoon period lasts from October to March, and in the north – from June to July. On the coast of Sulawesi, the air temperature can reach + 34C, and in the middle of the island, on a hill – + 24C.
Average air temperature in Bali:
– January – +26С
– February – +26С
– March – +27С
– April – +27С
– May – +28С
– June – +27С
– July – +27С
– August – +27С
– September – +27С
– October – +27С
– November – +27С
– December – +27С
Ocean in Indonesia
The shores of the Indonesian islands are washed by the warm waters of the Indian and Pacific Oceans.
Average sea temperature near Bali island:
– January – +29С
– February – +29С
– March – +29С
– April – +28С
– May – +28С
– June – +28С
– July – +27С
– August – +27С
– September – +27С
– October – +27С
– November – +27С
– December – +27С
Rivers and lakes
Some of the Indonesian islands have many rivers. The largest rivers flow through the island of Kalimantan (these are the Mahakam, Barito and Kapuas rivers). On the island of Sumatra is the largest volcanic lake in the world – Lake Toba.
History of Indonesia
On the territory of Indonesia, the ancestors of modern people lived already in the times of the Lower Paleolithic (Javanese ape-man and Flores man). Approximately 45 thousand years ago, Homo sapiens appeared on the territory of modern Indonesia. Moreover, Indonesia was inhabited by representatives of the Negroid and Mongoloid races.
The first states in Indonesia already existed in the 4th century AD. – Kutai and Taruma, and later – Srivijaya. All these states were greatly influenced by India and Buddhism.
In the 13th century, the Majapahit empire reached its peak. At the same time, Islam began to spread in Indonesia.
Europeans arrived in Indonesia at the beginning of the 16th century. They were Portuguese sailors. Then the Dutch began to claim Indonesia, who formed the Netherlands East India Company in 1602. At that time, several states existed on the territory of modern Indonesia, among which the Sultanate of Mataram should be distinguished. Gradually, these states became colonies of the Netherlands.
Indonesia became a British colony in 1811. However, after the end of the Napoleonic Wars, Great Britain returned Indonesia to the Netherlands.
In the first half of the 20th century, Indonesians formed several political parties (for example, the Communist Party of Indonesia and the National Party).
In the spring of 1942, Indonesia (Netherlands East Indies) was captured by Japanese troops. The Japanese occupation of Indonesia continued until August 1945. It was in August 1945 that the independence of Indonesia was proclaimed. However, the Netherlands did not want to part with their colony, and unleashed hostilities. The fighting ended only in 1950. Sukarno was elected president of the country.
In March 1968, the People’s Consultative Congress elected Sukarto, who had previously commanded the ground forces, as president of Indonesia.
Since 2004, the President of Indonesia has been elected by direct universal suffrage.
The modern culture of Indonesia is the result of the interaction of the traditions of different peoples who live in this country. In addition, Portuguese traders and Dutch colonists had a noticeable impact on Indonesian culture.
In everyday life, Indonesians are guided by the principles of mutual assistance (“gotong royong”) and exchange of opinion (“musyawarah”), which helps to come to an agreement (“mufakat”).
Indonesian art is under a very strong religious influence. The traditions of the famous dance dramas of Java and Bali date back to Hindu mythology (influence of the Hindu epics Ramayana and Mahabharata can be seen in them).
In Indonesia, we recommend that tourists definitely see the local festivals, which are held everywhere and almost every month. The largest of them are the Galungan festival in Bali, performances of the “Ramayana ballet” in Java, the Feast of Silence in Bali, the Vesak Buddhist festival in Borobudur, the Easter parade on Larantuka island.
The staple food in Indonesia is rice, but potatoes, corn, sago and cassava are common in the eastern part of the country. Naturally, a very large part in Indonesian cuisine is occupied by fish and various seafood (oysters, shrimps, lobsters, crabs, squids). In addition, Indonesian cuisine cannot be imagined without coconut (oil is made from it, and the pulp is added to many dishes).
As for meat, beef and poultry are popular in Indonesia. Pork is only found in Chinese restaurants or in areas where few Muslims live.
Traditional Indonesian dishes are nasi goring (fried rice), mie goring (fried noodles), and gado-gado (vegetables with eggs in peanut sauce).
Indonesia has a wide variety of exotic fruits (jackfruit, durian, papaya, pineapple and mango).
The traditional alcoholic drink in Indonesia is tuak wine, which is made from palm red sugar. However, most Indonesians drink black tea because Islam forbids alcohol.
Sights of Indonesia
Rest assured that travelers in Indonesia are not bored. Of course, relaxing on the beaches under the Indonesian sky is a great pleasure. But sometimes you want to visit interesting places. There are a lot of such interesting sights in Indonesia. The top ten Indonesian attractions, in our opinion, may include the following:
- Jine Yuan Temple in Jakarta
- Museum of Puppets and Ritual Supplies Wayang in Jakarta
- Botanical garden Kebun-Ray in Bogor
- Sultan Kraton palace complex in Yogyakarta
- Pura Besakih temple complex in Bali
- Royal Tombs and Palace of Samosir Island
- Istiklal Mosque in Jakarta
- Orchid garden in Melak village, Kalimantan
- The royal tomb of Gunung Kawi in Bali
- Temple of a Thousand Buddhas in Yogyakarta
Cities and resorts
The largest Indonesian cities are Surabaya, Bandung, Medan, Tangerang, Bekasi, Depok, Palembang, Semarang, Makassar, and, of course, Jakarta.
Due to its geographical position, Indonesia has excellent conditions for recreation. Tourists have long appreciated such islands in Indonesia as, for example, Bali and Lombok. However, some of the other Indonesian islands offer just as great a holiday opportunity. We advise you to pay attention to the islands of Papua, Lembongan, Sulawesi, Sumatra, Kalimantan, Java.
Almost every hotel in Indonesia offers spa services. In general, many argue that the best spa treatments are done in Indonesia. Spa programs on the island of Bali are especially diverse.
Traditional Indonesian spa services include a milk bath (“Mandi susu”), which is considered the beauty bath of the princesses of Java, “Mandi luhur”, “flower baths” (jasmine, gardenia, hibiscus, magnolia petals are added to warm water), which, as a rule, are the final stage of the spa session.
In addition, Indonesian spas include herbal wraps (used to remove impurities from the body and heal skin blemishes) as well as traditional massages.
Bamboo and coconut products (for example, baskets, rugs), wooden spoons, bowls, figurines, painted ceremonial masks, batik and ikat fabrics (as well as, for example, tablecloths made from these fabrics) are usually brought from Indonesia as souvenirs., Wayang dolls, traditional Indonesian musical instruments (“gamelan”, drums, bamboo flutes), tea.
Mon-Fri: 08:00-14:30 Some bank branches work longer.
Department stores and supermarkets in large cities:
Mon-Sat: 09:00-21:00 (shops close earlier on Sunday)
In small shops and markets, we recommend haggling at the price of the product you like.
Ukrainians need to get a visa to visit Indonesia.
Currency of Indonesia
The official currency in Indonesia is the Indonesian rupiah (its international designation is IDR). Credit cards are accepted by most hotels, restaurants and large shops in all major cities in Indonesia.
Tourists can carry (or export) foreign currency to Indonesia without restrictions, but the amount of 11 thousand dollars must be included in the declaration. As in other countries, Indonesia prohibits the import of firearms, drugs, and pornography. In addition, any literature in Chinese, as well as medicines from China, cannot be imported into Indonesia.
Useful phone numbers and addresses
Address of the Embassy of Indonesia in Ukraine:
Postcode: 04107, Kiev, st. Nagornaya, 27-b T:
mail: [email protected]
110 – Police
118, 119 – Ambulance
113 – Fire brigade
Time in Indonesia
The difference with time in Kyiv is +5 hours. Those. if in Jakarta, for example, it is 14:00 in the morning, then in Kyiv it is only 09:00 in the morning.
In Indonesia, tipping is not very common, it all depends on the tourists themselves. In restaurants, 10% of the bill is usually left for “tea”, for porters in hotels – the equivalent of $0.50 – $1 per bag, and in a taxi, the bill can be rounded up.
Indonesia is a poor country, so its people will be grateful to you for a small amount of money left for “tea”.
No mandatory vaccinations are required to visit Indonesia. However, doctors still recommend tourists before traveling to this country to be vaccinated against yellow fever, typhoid, malaria, rabies, diphtheria and tetanus.
Indonesia has a fairly high crime rate. Pickpockets, fake ATMs, hotel burglaries, credit card scams, cheating taxi drivers can all be found in Indonesia. Therefore, we advise tourists there not to lose vigilance.
The good news is that violent crime is rare in Indonesia. The bad news is that Indonesian attackers, who have enough aggressive qualities, come up with various cunning ways to take possession of other people’s property.