On the territory of Iran, which is sometimes also called Persia, once upon a time one of the most ancient civilizations in the world was formed. This country has amazing nature, beautiful mountains, ancient cities, balneological, ski and beach resorts. Iranians are very hospitable people and always welcome tourists who respect their religion.
Geography of Iran
Iran is located in Southwest Asia. In the north and northeast, Iran borders with Azerbaijan, Turkmenistan and Armenia, in the west with Iraq, in the northwest with Turkey, and in the east with Pakistan and Afghanistan. In the north, the shores of Iran are washed by the waters of the Caspian Sea, and in the south of the country there is the Arabian Sea (Persian and Oman Gulfs), which is part of the Indian Ocean. The total area of this country is 1,648,000 sq. km, including the islands, and the total length of the state border is 5,619 km.
In the west of Iran is the Elburz mountain system, as well as the Caucasus Mountains. In general, most of the territory of Iran is occupied by mountains. The highest peak in the country is Damavend Peak, whose height reaches 5,604 meters. However, in the east of Iran there are deserts (for example, Deshte-Kevir), and in the north there are large plains.
According to itypemba.com, the capital of Iran is Tehran, which is now home to more than 8.8 million people. Archaeologists say that the settlement of people on the site of modern Tehran already existed 7 thousand years ago.
The official language in Iran is Persian, belonging to the Iranian group of the Indo-European language family.
About 98% of Iran’s population is Muslim (89% are Shiite Muslims and 9% are Sunni Muslims).
State structure of Iran
According to equzhou.net, Iran is an Islamic republic. Its head is the President, elected by popular vote for a term of 4 years. The President appoints the members of the Council of Ministers by decree and supervises their activities.
However, in Iran, the real power does not belong to the President, but to the “Supreme Leader”, who is elected by the Council of Experts, consisting of 86 people (they are elected by the people).
A special role in Iran belongs to the Council of Guardians of the Constitution (12 people). Members of this Council should check whether the laws adopted in Iran comply with the Constitution.
The right of legislative initiative in Iran has a unicameral parliament – the Majlis. It consists of 190 deputies elected by direct universal suffrage for 4 years.
Climate and weather
The climate in Iran is changeable. In the north, along the coast of the Caspian Sea, the climate is subtropical. In the northwest, winters are cold (there is often a lot of snow), spring and autumn are warm, and summers are dry and hot. As for the south of the country, there are warm winters and hot summers. In July, in the south of Iran, the average air temperature is + 38C. In general, in general, in Iran, the average annual air temperature is +16.7C. The average annual rainfall is 213 mm.
Average air temperature in Iran:
– January – +3.5С
– February – + 6С
– March – +11С
– April – +16С
– May – +28С
– June – +27С
– July – +30С
– August – +28.5С
– September – + 25С
– October – +18С
– November – +
10С – December – +5.5С
Sea in Iran
In the north, Iran is washed by the waters of the Caspian Sea. In the south of the country is the Arabian Sea (Persian and Oman Gulfs), which is part of the Indian Ocean. The length of the coast of the Caspian Sea in Iran is 740 kilometers, and the coast along the Persian and Oman gulfs stretches for 2,440 kilometers.
Iran consists of several islands. The most famous of them is, perhaps, the island of Kish in the Strait of Hormuz, which is now a popular place for a beach holiday.
Rivers and lakes
There are not many rivers in Iran, which determines its geographical location. Moreover, only one of them is navigable – Karun, flowing in the north-west of the country.
In the north-west of Iran, there is also the most famous Iranian lake – Urmia, whose salty waters are similar in chemical composition to the water of the Dead Sea. Due to its waters, Lake Urmia is a very popular balneological resort in Iran.
History of Iran
According to archaeological finds, people on the southern coast of the Caspian Sea (i.e. in the territory of modern Iran) lived already in 10,000 BC. Scientists believe that this region managed to avoid all the “charms” of the Ice Age.
Previously, Iran was called Persia, however, now this name is also still used.
The first mention of the Iranians refers to 844 BC. (in Assyrian texts). In the 6th century, Cyrus the Great founded the Persian Empire, which was destroyed in 330 BC. Alexander the Great.
In the following centuries, Persia was invaded by the Parthians, Arabs, Mongols, and Seljuk Turks. In the middle of the 7th century, after Persia was conquered by the Arabs, Islam began to spread among the Iranians, displacing their ancient religion, Zoroastrianism.
Since 1502, representatives of the Safavid dynasty became the Shahs of Iran. In this era, the Iranian Shah Ismail I makes the Shia trend in Islam the state religion.
In the XVIII-XIX centuries, Iran fell into the sphere of interests of Great Britain and Russia. In the early 1900s, oil intensified the rivalry between Britain and Russia for influence in Iran.
In 1921, an army officer, Reza Khan, established a military dictatorship in Iran, and in 1925 he appropriated the title “Shah” to himself.
In 1979, a revolution took place in Iran, as a result of which the Shah was overthrown, and Iran became an Islamic republic. The founder of the Islamic Republic of Iran is Ayatollah Khomeini.
Iran is a very conservative Muslim country. Perhaps that is why the Iranians have retained many of their customs and traditions. Most Iranian customs and holidays are religious in nature.
In March, Iranians celebrate Novruz, which is dedicated to the beginning of the New Year (the Iranians have their own calendar). Before the onset of the New Year, Iranians always arrange a general cleaning in their homes, and also buy sweets and dried fruits for themselves, their relatives and friends.
Iranian cuisine is very diverse. Each province of Iran has its own culinary traditions and delicious dishes. The main food products are rice, meat (including chicken meat), fish, vegetables, nuts, spices. However, Greek, Arabic, Turkish, and even Russian culinary traditions have had a noticeable influence on Iranian cuisine.
For tourists in Iran, we definitely recommend (along with dolma) to try the following dishes:
– Ash-e Jow – a thick soup made from barley beans, lentils and vegetables;
– Fesenjan – chicken with pomegranates in nut sauce;
– Kalam polo – pilaf with the aroma of cinnamon and saffron;
– Khoresht ghaimeh – stew with peas;
– Khoresht-e Aloo – lamb stew with prunes;
– Kookoo – omelette with spices;
– Kufteh – spicy cutlets;
– Reshteh Polo – “green” pilaf (it is green because of the herbs added to it).
Alcoholic drinks are prohibited in Iran (instead of alcohol, Iranians smoke hookah). But the traditional Iranian soft drinks include yogurt, coffee and tea.
Sights of Iran
To get acquainted with the sights of Iran, this country needs to be visited several times. Perhaps, in terms of the number (and their beauty) of sights, Iran is second only to such countries as Italy, Greece and Bulgaria. The top ten Iranian attractions, in our opinion, may include the following:
- Tomb of the Persian king Cyrus II in Pasargadae
- Sad Abad Museum in Tehran
- Golestan Palace in Tehran
- Friday Mosque in Isfakan
- Meybod fortress
- Imam Mosque in Isfakan
- Tomb of poet Hafez in Shiraz
- Ancient ziggurat Choga Zembil
- Zoroastrian shrine in Yazd
- The ruins of the Assassin fortress of Alamut
Cities and resorts
The largest Iranian cities are Karaj, Tabriz, Mashhad, Shiraz, Isfahan, Ahvaz, and, of course, Tehran.
It would seem that there should be many beach resorts in Iran, because. the country has access to the Caspian and Arabian seas, however, this is not yet the case. This is influenced, in part, by the political situation in which Iran finds itself.
However, in recent years, beach resorts have begun to develop in Iran. So, on the island of Kish (Shahid-Zakeri, Laft, Bahman), located 17 km from the coast of Iran in the Strait of Hormuz, many high-class hotels have been built in recent years, and excellent conditions for diving have been created. You can swim and sunbathe on Kish Island in winter. By the way, on the island of Kish, men are forbidden to wear ties, because. they “are part of the Western way of life”.
There are many mineral springs in Iran (most of them are in the north-west of the country). The most famous balneological Iranian resort is Temriz. In the vicinity of Termiz there is Lake Urmia, the water of which is close in composition to the water of the Dead Sea.
We have already said that there are a lot of mountains in Iran (especially in the west of the country). Therefore, it is not surprising that several ski resorts are now operating in Iran – Dizin, Toshal and Ab Ali. The skiing season is from November to April. By the way, the Ab Ali ski resort was built back in 1953.
Of course, the infrastructure of Iranian ski resorts is not very developed. But these resorts have mineral springs, which slightly compensate for the shortcomings of the infrastructure.
Tourists from Iran bring carpets, bags, scarves, blankets, towels, dishes, ceramics, baskets, jewelry, various sweets, hookahs as souvenirs.
A visa is required to visit Iran.
The official currency in Iran is the Iranian rial (its international designation is IRR). One Iranian rial = 100 dinars. Credit cards are not used.
Import and export of currency in Iran is not limited. Iranian rials in Iran can also be imported and exported without restrictions, but in the amount of 500 thousand rials, you need to obtain permission.
It is forbidden to import magazines and literature with photographs that can be classified as “erotic” into Iran. It is also forbidden to import alcoholic products into Iran.
It is forbidden to export more than one large Persian carpet per person from Iran, as well as antiques that are over 50 years old.
Useful phone numbers and addresses
Address of the Iranian Embassy in Ukraine:
Postcode: 01901, Kiev, st. Kruglouniversitetskaya, 12
Т: (044) 253-85-43
Address of the Embassy of Ukraine in Iran:
Index – 1994833951, Tehran, st. Vanak, 73
T: (8 10 9821)
8860-61-71 mail: [email protected]
110 – Police
115 – Ambulance
125 – Fire brigade
112 – for calls from mobile phones
The difference with time in Kyiv is +1.5 hours. Those. if in Tehran, for example, it is 09:00 am, then in Kyiv it is only 07:30 am.
Tipping is not common in Iran. Only in prestigious restaurants in Tehran, 10% of the bill is left for “tea” (although often the service fee is already included in the bill). However, the Iranians will be happy if you leave them change.
No mandatory vaccinations are required to visit Iran. However, doctors still recommend tourists to get vaccinated against malaria, rabies, diphtheria, tetanus, and typhoid before traveling to this country.
The crime rate in Iran is very low, so it is safe to travel in Iran. At the same time, of course, one must take into account that the Iranians are Muslims, and behave modestly, not defiantly.
We recommend avoiding participation in any political discussions and not talking about political topics.