Israel was formed relatively recently – in 1948. During this time, Israel has become one of the most influential states in the world. Millions of tourists visit this country every year. They are attracted to Israel by holy sites associated with Jesus Christ and the biblical patriarchs, thousands of unique attractions, beach resorts in the Mediterranean and Red Seas, and spa resorts in the Dead Sea. Will you go to Israel? Don’t forget to bring your video camera!
Geography of Israel
Israel is located in the Middle East. Israel borders Lebanon to the north, Syria to the northeast, and Jordan to the east. In the southwest is the Gaza Strip, the so-called. “unrecognized territory”. In the west, Israel is washed by the waters of the Mediterranean and Red Seas, and in the southeast is the Dead Sea. The total area of this country is 22,072 sq. km, and the total length of the state border is 1,017 km.
In the south of Israel is the Negev desert, whose area is about 12 thousand square meters. km., and in the north – the Golan Heights, as well as mountain ranges. Another large desert in Israel is the Judean. The highest peak in Israel is Mount Hermon, whose height reaches 2,200 m.
In the east of Israel flows the Jordan River, which separates this country from Jordan.
According to itypemba.com, the capital of Israel is Jerusalem, which is now home to more than 820 thousand people. The first human settlement on the territory of modern Jerusalem, as archaeologists believe, appeared in the late Bronze Age.
Israel has two official languages - Hebrew and Arabic.
Over 75% of Israel’s population is Jewish. More than 17% of Israelis consider themselves Muslims.
According to equzhou.net, Israel is a parliamentary republic. Its head is the President, elected by the Knesset (Parliament) for a 7-year term.
Legislative power belongs to the unicameral parliament – the Knesset, which consists of 120 deputies.
Executive power belongs to the President, the Prime Minister and the Cabinet of Ministers.
The main political parties in Israel are Likud, Our Home is Israel, Jewish Home, etc.
Climate and weather
The climate in Israel is subtropical Mediterranean. The average air temperature is +17.4%. The warmest average air temperature in Israel is observed in July and August – +30C, and the lowest – in January and February (+6C). The average rainfall is 493 mm per year.
Average temperature in Jerusalem:
– January – +9С
– February – +9С
– March – +12С
– April – +16С
– May – +21С
– June – +23С
– July – +24С
– August – +24С
– September – +23С
– October – +21С
– November – +16С
– December – +11.5С
Sea in Israel
In the west, Israel is washed by the waters of the Mediterranean and Red Seas. The total coastline of Israel is 273 km. The Dead Sea is located in the east of the country. The average annual temperature of the Mediterranean Sea near Haifa is +22.4C.
Average Mediterranean Sea temperature near Haifa:
– January – +17С
– February – +16.2С
– March – +17.1С
– April – +19.2С
– May – +22.2С
– June – +25.5С
– July – +28.3С
– August – +28.8С
– September – +28.5С
– October – +26С
– November – +22С
– December – +18.4С
Rivers and lakes
Despite the fact that there are several deserts in Israel, quite a lot of rivers flow through the territory of this country. Among them are Kishon, Lachish, Besor, Naaman, Sorek, Harod. In the east of Israel, the Jordan River flows, which separates this country from Jordan.
History of Israel
The first human settlements on the territory of modern Israel appeared 9 thousand years ago. Semitic tribes settled in Israel about 5 thousand years ago. Approximately 2,400 years ago, Hebrew tribes already lived on the territory of modern Israel.
In ancient times, Israel was part of Ancient Egypt, Assyria, Babylon, the Persian Empire of the Achaemenids, Macedonia, the Ptolemaic and Seleucid states. In the middle of the 1st century BC. Judea fell into vassalage from Ancient Rome, and in 70 AD. it became a Roman province.
The Romans divided Judea into several regions – Samaria, Galilee, Perea, and Judea proper. After some time, the Romans renamed Judea Palestine.
In the Middle Ages, Israel was part of the Byzantine Empire, as well as the Sassanid Empire. For some time, Israel was captured by the Arabs and the Crusaders. By the way, the crusader fortress of Acre, which the Egyptian Mamluks conquered only in 1291, lasted the longest in Israel. From that time until 1517, Israel was ruled by the Egyptian Mamluks.
In 1517, the Turkish Sultan Selim I managed to conquer Israel (Palestine), which became part of the Ottoman Empire.
Only in 1918, Israel (Palestine) gained de facto independence, although it was under the protectorate of Great Britain. Israel’s independence was proclaimed in May 1948.
In 1949 Israel became a member of the UN.
Despite the fact that the Israelis did not have their own homeland for a long time, they still retained their culture and traditions. “Shabbat” in Israel falls on Saturday, but practically begins on Friday evening. Therefore, in Israel, the day off is not only Saturday, but also half of Friday.
Israelis celebrate a huge number of holidays, most of which, of course, are religious. Among these holidays, the following must be mentioned: the Jewish New Year, the Day of Judgment, the Feast of Tabernacles, the Feast of the Joy of the Torah, the Jewish Passover, the Seventh Day of the Jewish Passover, Independence Day, Pentecost.
Most Israelis were born in various countries. They brought the culinary traditions of these countries to Israel. Therefore, in Israel you can find a very wide range of dishes that owe their origin, for example, to Iran, Iraq, Lebanon, Egypt, Turkey, Greece, Bulgaria, Romania, Germany, Hungary, Poland, Ukraine and Russia. In addition, Arab culinary traditions are noticeable in Israeli cuisine.
Tourists in Israel, we advise you to definitely try:
– “Gefilte” – fish balls (most often they are made from carp);
– Kneidlach – dumplings made from matzah, which are added to the soup;
– Fazuelos – traditional Israeli pastries;
– “Khomentashen” – small pies with different fillings (apricots, nuts, apples, cherries);
– “Latkes” – fried pancakes made from flour, eggs and potatoes (very often they are served with garlic and onions);
– “Kreplach” – small dumplings stuffed with mashed potatoes and minced meat;
– “Tsimus” – a traditional Jewish dish, which consists of carrots, beans and chickpeas (prunes and raisins are often added);
– “Ptitim” – products made from wheat flour. Ptitim is either eaten as a side dish or added to soup.
In Israel, we advise tourists to try “limonana” – a non-alcoholic drink (it is made from lemon syrup or lemon juice, water and mint).
The traditional alcoholic drink in Israel is arak, which is flavored with anise (the strength of this drink can exceed 40 degrees).
Landmarks of Israel
There are a lot of different sights in Israel. Many of them are holy places for Jews, Christians and Muslims. What are the best attractions in Israel? There is no short answer to this question. The top ten attractions in Israel, in our opinion, may include the following:
Fort of David in Jerusalem
This fortress was built by the Jewish king Herod the Great. Previously, there were three towers in the fortress of David. However, only the lower part of one of the towers has survived to this day. Now in the fortress of David there is a museum of the history of Jerusalem.
Church of John the Baptist in Jerusalem
The Church of John the Baptist was built in the 8th century. Thus, it is one of the oldest churches in Jerusalem. In the early Middle Ages, the Church of John the Baptist was destroyed, but in the 11th century it was restored.
Church of the Holy Sepulcher in Jerusalem
It is believed that this temple was built on the spot where Jesus Christ was crucified. The initiator of the construction of the Church of the Holy Sepulcher in Jerusalem was Julia Elena Augusta, the mother of the Roman Emperor Constantine. The construction of the temple was completed in 335.
Church of the Nativity in Bethlehem
This temple is built on the spot where Jesus Christ is believed to have been born. Over time, several monasteries were built around the Church of the Nativity of Christ.
The Teutonic Knights were engaged in the construction of Montfort Castle in the first half of the 13th century. In 1271, the Sultan of Egypt, Baibars, captured this castle, and since then no one has restored it.
Garden of Gethsemane in Jerusalem
It is believed that Jesus Christ spoke with his disciples in the Garden of Gethsemane. There he was arrested.