Ancient Jordan occupies a strategic position in the Middle East. For many centuries, Jordan was the scene of wars between Arabs and Christians (crusaders). Now Jordan is a prosperous country, which has preserved thousands of unique monuments of archeology and history. In addition, there are several excellent beach and spa resorts in Jordan.
Geography of Jordan
Jordan is located in the Middle East. Jordan borders Saudi Arabia to the east and southeast, Syria to the north, and the Palestinian Authority and Israel to the west. In the west of the country there is the Dead Sea and the Gulf of Aqaba (it belongs to the Red Sea). The total territory of Jordan is 92,300 sq. km, and the total length of the state border is 1,619 km.
Almost 90% of the territory of Jordan is occupied by deserts. Moreover, more than 50% of the country is the Arabian Desert. However, there is arable land and even forests in the west of Jordan. The highest point in Jordan is Mount Jabal Ram, whose height reaches 1,734 meters.
In the west of Jordan flows the Jordan River, which separates this country from Israel.
Capital of Jordan
According to itypemba.com, the capital of Jordan is Amman, which is now home to more than 2 million people. According to archaeological finds, a human settlement existed on the site of modern Amman already in the 13th century BC.
In Jordan, the official language is Arabic, belonging to the Semitic group of the Afroasian language family.
About 90% of the population of Jordan are Sunni Muslims, and about 8% of the population are Orthodox Christians.
State structure of Jordan
According to equzhou.net, Jordan is a constitutional monarchy (officially the Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan) with the King as head of state.
The source of legislative power is the bicameral Parliament (National Assembly). It consists of the House of Representatives and the Senate. The king has the right to dissolve Parliament. The members of the House of Representatives are appointed by the King himself.
Jordan is made up of 12 provinces (governors).
Climate and weather
In the north-west of Jordan, the climate is subtropical Mediterranean, and in the rest of the country – tropical desert. In Jordan, the average air temperature is +17.5C. The warmest average air temperature in Jordan is observed in August – +33C, and the lowest – in January (+4C). The average rainfall is 273 mm per year.
Sea in Jordan
In Jordan, the coastline of the Dead Sea and the Gulf of Aqaba (as we know, this bay belongs to the Red Sea) is only about 27 kilometers. However, the beaches of the Dead Sea and the Gulf of Aqaba are very popular with tourists. It is believed that the Dead Sea contains many substances that are beneficial to the human body.
Rivers and lakes
About 90% of the territory of Jordan is occupied by deserts (the largest of them is the Arabian Desert). Only in the west of the country flows the Jordan River, which separates it from Israel. It is believed that it was in the Jordan River that Jesus Christ was baptized.
People on the territory of modern Jordan appeared in the Neolithic era. It was then that agriculture began to develop in Jordan. In ancient times, Jordan was an integral part of several kingdoms (for example, the Kingdom of Edam).
In the III century BC. Jordan is part of the Nabataean kingdom, whose capital was Petra. In 106, Ancient Rome conquers Jordan.
In the 7th century, Jordan was already part of the Arab Caliphate. In the 11th century, Jordan becomes a battlefield between the Arabs and the crusaders. It was the crusaders who formed the Principality of Transjordan on the territory of modern Jordan.
In addition, in the Middle Ages, Jordan was invaded by the Egyptian Mamluks, and then by the Tatar-Mongol. In 1516, Transjordan became part of the Ottoman Empire. Only in 1918 Jordan managed to secede from the Ottoman Empire. The Principality of Transjordan was formed, however, it was actually under the control of Great Britain. It was not until 1946 that the Principality of Jordan gained independence. Then this state was renamed the Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan.
In 1955 Jordan became a member of the UN.
Culture of Jordan
Jordan is a Muslim country, and this, of course, characterizes its culture. But Christians also live in this country, who, for example, celebrate Christmas and Easter, but these holidays are not official in Jordan.
Official holidays in Jordan are Labor Day (it is celebrated on May 1), Independence Day (it is celebrated on May 25), Arab Revolt Day and Army Day (June 10), King Hussein’s Birthday (it is celebrated on November 14).
Jordanian cuisine is a traditional cuisine of the Middle East. Traditional foods in Jordan are eggplant, peas, lentils, beans, bread, meat (lamb, beef, poultry), dairy products including yogurt and cheese. Most Jordanian restaurants offer mixed menus (Arabic and European dishes).
Alcoholic drinks in Jordan are served in most local restaurants and bars, except for the month of Ramadan. During Ramadan, foreign tourists can only consume alcohol in hotels.
Traditional Jordanian dishes:
– Meze – various snacks;
– Mensaf – lamb stew with yogurt sauce;
– Makloubat – chicken with spices (cinnamon, allspice, cardamom and nutmeg);
– Kibbi – fried lamb or beef with onions and cinnamon;
The national soft drink in Jordan is Arabic coffee. As for alcoholic beverages, thanks to Christians, excellent wine has been made in Jordan for many centuries. In addition, arak (liqueur, a bit like non-Greek ouzo) is made in this country.
The official authorities of Jordan claim that there are about 20 thousand monuments of archeology, history, culture and architecture in this country. Therefore, it is difficult for us to choose the best of them. However, the top ten attractions in Jordan, in our opinion, include the following:
- Castle Hill in Amman
- Antique amphitheater in Amman
- Ajlun Castle
- Palace of Iraq al-Amir
- Mount Nebo, from where God showed the prophet Moses the Promised Land
- Roman triumphal arch in Jerash
- Ruins of Umm al-Jimal
- Tomb of the Nabatean kings in Petra
- “Mountain of Sacrifice” in Petra
- Crusader Castle Shobak
Cities and resorts
The largest Jordanian cities are Az-Zarqa, Irbid, Es-Salt, El Mafraq, and, of course, Amman.
Jordan has access to the Dead and Red Seas, so it is not surprising that this country has several beach resorts. On the coast of the Red Sea is the resort of Aqaba, where you can relax 12 months a year. However, there are beach resorts in Jordan on the coast of the Dead Sea. It is on the coast of the Dead Sea that Jordanian spa resorts are located.
Tourists come to Jordan not only for the beach and spa resorts. Many are interested in the sights of this country. So, in Jordan there is the ancient city of Petra, which was once the center of the Nabatean kingdom.
Tourists from Jordan usually bring sand-decorated bottles, cotton handkerchiefs, various jewelry, Bedouin knives, local musical instruments (“narghilas”), tobacco, rugs and carpets (including prayer rugs), Jordanian traditional clothing, ceramics, and and, of course, Arabic coffee.
Sun:Thu: 08:00-20:00 (many shops close much earlier)
During Ramadan, all institutions and shops in Jordan operate on a reduced schedule.
Ukrainians need to obtain a visa to enter Jordan.
The official currency in Jordan is the Jordanian dinar. One Jordanian dinar = 100 piastres. The international designation for the Jordanian dinar is JOD. All major credit cards are accepted in large stores, including souvenir shops, as well as in restaurants and hotels.
You can import (or export) foreign currency to Jordan without any restrictions, but a declaration is required. You can take out of Jordan no more than 300 Jordanian dinars.
Animals can only be imported into Jordan if they have a certificate from a veterinarian. Firearms are allowed to be imported only if there is a permit from the Jordanian police.
Useful phone numbers and addresses
Address of the Jordanian embassy in Ukraine:
Index – 01054, Kiev, st. Dmitrievskaya 48-G
T: (044) 561-26-96
Address of the Embassy of Ukraine in Jordan:
Jordan, Amman, Al-Sagel, st. Al-Umuma, 6,
592-24-02 email: [email protected]
190 – Traffic police
191 – Police
199 – Ambulance and fire service
There is no difference with Ukrainian time. those. if in Amman, for example, it is 09:00 am, then in Kyiv it is also 09:00 am.
In Jordan, as in other countries in the Middle East, tips are very welcome. In local hotels and restaurants, 10% of the bill is left for “tea”. It is customary to give 2 dollars to messengers or porters in hotels. In a taxi, we recommend rounding the bill up to a “round” number.
No vaccinations are required to enter Jordan. However, we recommend that tourists who plan to travel to Jordan get vaccinated against tetanus, hepatitis A, polio, and typhoid.
Foreign tourists in Jordan are advised to be wary of petty theft. In Amman, you don’t have to walk alone through the narrow streets of the old city.
Jordan has a very conservative society, so tourists should dress modestly and be very polite. Women in Jordan are advised to dress conservatively, not to travel alone, to avoid traveling at night, and to carry a mobile phone at all times.