The Republic of Turkey is located at the crossroads of West and East. It has access to four seas. This country has amazing nature, architecture and history. For tourists and travelers, Turkey is interesting as a place where you can enjoy the sun, beaches, healing springs, go skiing, go mountain climbing.
Geography of Turkey
Turkey is a country located in the Mediterranean region. The main part of the country is located in southwestern Asia, about 3% of the territory lies in southeastern Europe. The European part of the country is separated from the Asian by the Sea of Marmara, as well as by the Bosporus and Dardanelles. In the north, Turkey is washed by the Black Sea, from the west – by the Aegean, in the south – by the Mediterranean. Turkey stretches for 1,600 km from west to east, and for 800 km from north to south. The area of Turkey is 783.6 thousand square kilometers, of which 755.7 thousand square kilometers are in the Asian part of the country and 23.8 thousand square kilometers. km – to the European.
The country is a plain surrounded by mountain ranges in the north, west and south, as well as low mountains in the east (with an altitude of 1050 m above sea level). In the west, the mountains gently descend directly to the sea. The northern range of Anatolia and the Taurus mountains stretch like arches, becoming denser towards the east. The highest mountain peak is 5.1 km.
Capital of Turkey
According to itypejob.com, Ankara is the capital of Turkey, the administrative center of the country, there are a large number of universities. The main part of the population of the city is represented by employees, students and academicians. 3.5 million people live in the city. Ankara is second only to Istanbul in size.
About 50 years ago, Ankara hastily began to be built up by immigrants from rural areas (except for the old part of the city and slum areas). Prior to this, no more than 20,000 people lived in Ankara. The favorable location of the city, almost in the very center of Turkey, contributed to the fact that most of the city was specially built up as the capital.
Ankara has a large selection of cinemas in such districts of the capital as Kankaya and Kavaklıdere, several concert halls for opera and ballet. Depending on your interests, you can walk around the city, visit museums or hunt for Ottoman relics in the ancient castle. Upscale malls like Armada offer great cinemas and restaurants.
The only official language of Turkey is Turkish, which belongs to the Altaic languages. Usually, speakers of Indo-European languages find it difficult to learn Turkish. Since 1928, after many centuries of using Arabic characters in writing, the Turkish language began to use the Latin alphabet.
About 7-10% of the population speak Kurdish.
According to equzhou.net, Turkey is a parliamentary republic. Power is divided into three branches: legislative, executive and judicial. The Grand National Assembly is the Turkish Parliament, which has legislative power in the country. The Prime Minister leads the government, which is the executive body. Judicial power belongs to the Constitutional Court of Turkey, whose composition is determined by the President and the Judicial Collegiums.
Climate and weather in Turkey
The climate of Turkey has significant differences based on the variety of terrain and latitude.
The Mediterranean climate prevails along the Aegean and Mediterranean coasts. Summer, dry and hot, lasts from May to October, winter is mild and rainy, snow rarely falls. The water temperature is kept within 23-28 C.
On the coast of the Marmara Sea (including Istanbul) the climate is mixed: it has the features of a maritime and partly Mediterranean climate. Here the winter is colder than, for example, on the western and southern coasts. However, snow only lies for a few days in winter. Warm summers are characterized by heavy rains that last only 20 minutes. The water temperature is 20-24C.
Features of the maritime climate are characteristic of the Black Sea coast. Summers are warm and humid, winters are cold and dry. This region receives the most rainfall in the entire country. The water temperature in the coastal waters of the Black Sea is quite cold and fluctuates between 10-20 C.
In general, in the country, the air temperature in winter remains within 6-7 C, in summer – 23-25 C. Very rarely in summer the temperature reaches 35 C.
Sea in Turkey
Turkey is washed by four seas: the Black and Marmara Seas in the north, the Aegean in the west and the Mediterranean in the south. The Bosporus and Dardanelles separate the European territory of Turkey from the Asian one.
Rivers and lakes
A sufficiently large river network in Turkey makes it possible to generate electricity for hydroelectric power plants and irrigate soils for agricultural needs.
The longest rivers – Sakarya, Kyzylyrmak, Eshilyrmak flow into the Black Sea. In eastern Anatolia, the well-known rivers Tigris and Euphrates originate, flowing south to Syria and Iraq. The Big Menderes and Gidiz rivers flow into the Aegean Sea, the Maritsa River is the border between Turkey and Greece, the Seyhan flows from the eastern highlands straight to the Mediterranean Sea. These rivers are the largest and most important in Turkey.
There are about 300 natural and 130 artificially created lakes in Turkey. The largest number of them in the region of eastern Anatolia. It is here that the largest lake Van is located – 3.7 sq. km. Also here are the lakes Erchek, Khazar. There are many lakes in the Taurus mountains: Beyshehir, Egirdir, Burdur, Adzhigel. Lakes Sapanzha, Uluabat, Iznik, Manyas, Kuchukchekmece, Buyukchekmece are located in the Sea of Marmara region.
History of Turkey
The history of Turkey is the history of a civilization dating back over 10 thousand years. Anatolia was a place where the cultures of Sumer, Babylon, Assyria interacted for centuries and the peoples of Hatti, Hittites and Hurrians dominated.
On the territory of Turkey in the III millennium BC. Ancient Troy appeared, playing an important role in the import of tin, which is so necessary for smelting bronze.
In the II millennium BC. The Hittites ruled the lands of modern Turkey. With excellent use of chariots and a monopoly on iron smelting, the Hittites dominated Egypt and Mesopotamia in military affairs.
A contemporary of the Hittite state and its enemy was the Kingdom of Minnati, founded by the Hurrians, who spread the use of the two-wheeled chariot and the breeding of horses throughout the Middle East.
In I thousand before. AD the Urartian state appeared, uniting the lands from the Caucasus Mountains to Lake Urmia. The Urartians were masters in the construction of hydraulic structures.
750 – 300 years. BC. on the territory of western and central Anatolia, the Phrygian state existed, which reached its dawn under King Midas. At the same time, Lydians lived in the district of the modern city of Izmir. There are versions that they invented money.
After the death of Alexander the Great, Anatolia becomes the center of the Seljuk Empire.
In the 11th century, the Seljuk Turks, under the leadership of Turgul, founded the great Seljuk dynasty, ruling in Iran, Iraq and Syria. In 1071, after the victory of Turgul’s nephew over the Byzantines, Anatolia finally passed into the power of the Turks. The heyday of the Konya Sultanate falls on the first half of the 13th century. The Sultan carried out centralized administration together with ministers and local governors.
The Seljuk Sultanate fell under the yoke of the Mongol invaders. Anatolia was again divided into rival principalities, one of which was the principality of Osman.
In 1296, Osman proclaims his independent Sultanate and creates the Ottoman state. Soon, almost the entire southeastern coast of the Marmara Sea was under the rule of the Ottoman Empire. A significant event for the whole world was the capture of Constantinople in 1453. However, this was not the last achievement of the Ottoman Empire, which by the end of the 16th century had made a number of important victories in Europe.
During the First World War, the Ottoman Empire sided with Germany, which finally undermined the power of the empire.
In 1919, Greece, Great Britain, and France claimed certain parts of Turkey. The national-patriotic movement that began under the leadership of Mustafa Kemal was called upon to restore the unity of Turkey, to make it a modern country in political, economic and social terms.
Mustafa Kemal (Ataturk) was proclaimed President of the proclaimed Republic of Turkey in October 1923.
Turkey became a NATO member in 1952.
Abdullah Gul has been the President of Turkey since August 2007.
Culture and Religion of Turkey
Turkey is a country that combines diverse cultures and traditions that are hundreds of years old. The culture of Turkey is a striking combination of West and East.
The ancient folk traditions in Turkish dances make this one colorful and rhythmic. Each region of Turkey has characteristic features in dances. There are some of the most interesting dances in different parts of the country. In the province of Sivas, eastern Anatolia, “Çayda Çıra” is a dance performed in the dark by young girls holding candles and dressed in caftans embroidered with silver and gold. In the province of Mersin (Mediterranean region), during the dance “Silifke Yoğurdu”, dancers knock spoons over their heads. “Kılıç Kalkan” is an epic dance performed with shields and swords in the province of Bursa.
Until the beginning of the 18th century, painting in Turkey was mainly represented by miniatures, which were placed as illustrations in manuscripts. In the 18th century, there is a tendency to use oil paints in painting in frescoes. It should be noted that for the first time in Turkey, painting lessons began to be taught in military schools.
The most ancient literary heritage of the pre-Islamic era is considered to be the Orkhon inscriptions created in northern Mongolia in 735. in honor of the Turkish king and his brother.
The main part of the population professes Islam. However, it is interpreted with certain differences in different regions of the country. So, in the northwestern and western parts of the country, they are quite liberal in regard to religion. In the central region, on the contrary, more conservative views are widespread. The most massive religious minority in Turkey are the Alevis, who make up 20% of the country’s population and practice shamanic rituals of the ancient Turks.
Turkish cuisine is recognized as one of the best in the world, thanks to the variety of dishes, the use of natural ingredients, taste and aroma, its influence on the cuisines of Europe, Africa, Asia and the East.
There is not a single dominant element in Turkish cuisine, which is, for example, Italian pasta.
The main course usually begins with a soup or meze, consisting of small cold and hot dishes intended to be shared.
Lamb is the most popular type of meat and is cooked in a variety of ways, including “şiş kebap” (selected cuts of meat roasted on a spit). “Köfte” – deep-fried lamb balls.
Fans of hot and spicy dishes should try “Adana kebap” – minced lamb with hot peppers and spices.
You will find a large selection of fish and seafood dishes in Istanbul or any other coastal city in the country.
In addition to stunning nature, mild sunny climate, beautiful beaches, Turkey boasts a cultural heritage. Being at the crossroads of civilizations, the country is full of a huge number of ancient ruins.
We recommend visiting the following places of interest in Turkey:
The Cappadocian caves and churches are perhaps the country’s most unique “architectural” heritage. Real “underground” cities and rock churches were created centuries ago by Christians hiding from persecution.
Hagia Sophia in Istanbul, built in 537 by the heirs of the Romans, the Byzantines. For almost a thousand years, this cathedral was the largest in the world.
The ruins of ancient Troy, which have preserved traces of different civilizations.
Temple of Artemis of Ephesus – one of the “seven wonders of the world”, located in the city of Ephesus, which has thousands of years of history.
Pamukkale is a nature reserve listed as a UNESCO World Heritage Site. Beautiful thermal springs have made this place a popular resort since antiquity.
In addition, you will not be indifferent to the amazing city of Izmir, Aspendos – an ancient amphitheater, Istanbul – the financial and cultural center of Turkey, and much more.
Cities and resorts
Turkey has a huge number of resorts for every taste and budget. The most developed tourist regions of the country are located in the west and south of Turkey. The three largest cities include Istanbul, Ankara, Izmir.
The most famous are such resorts as: Alanya, Antalya, Bodrum, Cappadocia, Fethiye, Istanbul, Kemer, Izmir, Kusadasi, Marmaris, Side.
Alanya is a beautiful resort with many clean beaches, modern hotels, restaurants, bars and clubs. Cafes framing the harbour, a place of rest for tourists. In addition, the harbor is full of various shops selling leather clothes, jewelry and fancy painted gourds – the highlight of the region.
Antalya (or as they say the Turkish Riviera) is the most stunning resort on the Mediterranean coast of Turkey.
Bodrum is a world famous peninsula of entertainment and relaxation, the unique climate, nature, sea and history make the city a true paradise.
Fethiye is a wonderful resort for diving enthusiasts. From the boat stations you can go on a trip to explore the amazing harbor in which the city is located. A great place for a relaxing family holiday.
Istanbul is the only city located on two continents at the same time. The city is also called the “peninsula of history”, as there are a huge number of monuments of the Roman, Ottoman and Byzantine eras.
Izmir is a city located at the beginning of a narrow bay, a place where there are many yachts, transit ships and steamers.
Marmaris is one of the most popular resorts in Turkey. Great place for a family vacation. Here, stunning fjords, pine-covered hills descend directly to the sea.
In Turkey, in addition to the usual postcards and key rings brought by tourists, there are many specific and truly unique things. Buy leather clothes (Turkey is one of the largest producers of leather goods), carpets and rugs made by hand in many regions of the country, silk (Bursa is especially famous for silk production), earthenware, Turkish coffee, chestnut dessert, Castile soap, created on the basis of olive oil (can be bought in shops on the coast of the Aegean and Marmara seas).
Usually museums are open every day except Monday from 9 am to 5 pm. Markets and shops are open from 9 am to 7 pm, with a lunch break (1 pm – 2 pm).
Banking institutions: from 8:30 to 17:30 (lunch: 12:30 – 13:30)
Pharmacies: from 8:30 a.m. to 7:00 p.m.
Since August 2012, an agreement on a visa-free regime has entered into force between Ukraine and Turkey. And this means that now a trip to Turkey does not require a visa, which was previously bought at a Turkish airport after arrival (a visa usually cost 30 US dollars).
The official currency of Turkey is the lira, which was previously used during the Ottoman Empire. Since 2005, the so-called “new” lira has been used (1 new lira was equal to 1,000,000 former lira).
Coins used: 1, 5, 10, 25, 50 kurush. There is also a 1 lira coin. On the coins there is an image of Ataturk (Mustafa Kemal).
Turkey is allowed to import duty-free coffee (up to 1 kg), weak alcoholic drinks (up to 5 liters), strong drinks in the amount of 1 liter (over 22 C), cigarettes (up to 20 packs).
If you take on a trip with you jewelry, antiques, the cost of which exceeds 15 thousand rubles. dollars, registration in the owner’s passport is required.
It is forbidden to import drugs (or drugs containing medications above a certain norm), weapons (sharp objects).
A special veterinary certificate is required for the transportation of pets.
You can export from Turkey Turkish lira (1000 USD in sum), personal items, souvenirs. But the export of valuables must be confirmed by the owner’s passport. In addition to the export of weapons and drugs, it is forbidden to export antiques. For example, when buying a carpet in Turkey, you must take a certificate of purchase and get a certificate from any museum that this item does not belong to antiques.
Useful phone numbers and addresses
Representative offices of the country on the territory of Ukraine:
Turkish embassy on the territory of Ukraine
Address: Kiev, Arsenalnaya st., 18
Phone: (+38 044) 281-07-50, 281-07-51
Fax: (+38 044) 285-64 -23
Mon. – Fri.: 10:00-12:30
Ukrainian representatives of the country:
Ukrainian Embassy in Turkey
Address: Sancak Mahallesi, 206 Sokak No. 17,
Ankara, 06550 Turkey
Tel.: (8 10 90 312) 441-54-99
(8 10 90 312) 440-52- 89
Fax: (8 10 90 312) 440-68-15
E-mail: [email protected], [email protected]
09:00 – 19:00
13:00 – 15:00
Days off: Sat., Sun.
Ambulance – 112
Police – 155
Fire Department – 110
Like Ukraine, Turkey is in the second time zone, that is, there is no difference in time.
Tipping is usually given at a rate of 10% of the bill. If you make small purchases, you can simply round up the amount to + one lira. It is not necessary to leave in cafes and restaurants. If you were satisfied with the service, then after the waiter brings you the change and leaves, leave the amount that you think is necessary.
There is no risk of infection with dangerous viruses in Turkey. Still, try to avoid buying any kind of food from vendors on the streets. Also, do not drink tap water (although it is usually chlorinated), it is better to buy bottled water in supermarkets.
To call the police, dial 155 free of charge from any phone.
It should be noted that in Turkey, however, there are petty thefts, although they are not committed exclusively against tourists. If possible, avoid unlit sections of the streets, carry your passport with you, do not show your mobile phone or other valuables once again.