Argentina is an independent nation in South America. With the capital city of Buenos Aires, Argentina 2020 population is estimated at 45,195,785 according to countryaah. The Spanish colonization of what is today Argentina began in the early 16th century. The colonizers pushed away the Native American people who previously lived in the area, which came into being in two Spanish Viceroys, Peru and Río de la Plata. The latter declared its independence in 1816, but it took almost half a century before the Republic of Argentina was formed. Wool, frozen meat and wheat were exported to Europe and by 1900 the new state was one of the world’s ten richest countries. At the same time, several new radical parties gained greater influence. After the World Depression of 1929, the economy had problems, and both 1930 and 1943 the military took power.
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Among Argentina’s original residents, there were no well-developed civilizations like the Inca Indians. But in the northwest, groups belonging to the Incas’ cultural area lived, including quechua and groups in Gran Chaco, which had ties to Indians further north. In the south, hunter and gatherer people lived as puelche on Pampas and tehuelche in Patagonia, but the area was sparsely populated when the Spaniards arrived in the early 16th century. For Argentina political system, please check diseaseslearning.
Juan Díaz de Solís reached the Río de la Plata bay between Argentina and Uruguay in 1516. Three decades later, the Spanish founded a settlement in the place where Buenos Aires is today. It was soon abandoned in search of gold and silver inland. Famine and resistance from Native Americans forced the colonizers to move north along the Paraná River. From there, the Spaniards again spread south. Argentina was incorporated into the Spanish Viceroy of Peru, but became a relatively unnoticed area on its outskirts.
Forced labor and new diseases led to a decline in the indigenous population. Black slaves from Africa were brought into Argentina, but there was still a shortage of labor. Livestock farming became the most important industry.
Buenos Aires became the capital of 1776 in a new Viceroy, Río de la Plata, which included the territories that today comprise Argentina, Uruguay, Paraguay and parts of Bolivia. The new colony was intended to strengthen Spain’s influence over the South Atlantic, where British and French gained a foothold.
Among the residents of the colony, ideas began to spread about releasing themselves from Spain. The Viceroy collapsed after Spain weakened during the Napoleonic Wars in Europe. in the early 19th century. In 1816, the Viceroy proclaimed an independent state, the United Provinces of South America, but only after several years did separatists win over those who wanted to be faithful Spain.
Within the country, severe conflicts raged. Unitarios, dominated by well-established merchant circles in the city of Buenos Aires, advocated a strong central government, while federal, conservative landowners in the inland, wanted far-reaching self-government for the provinces. At the head of the Federales stood strong leaders, caudillos, who were often military. The major estate owner Juan Manuel de Rosas became governor of Buenos Aires in 1829. In association with several caudillos, he drove self-government for the provinces and waged war against the Indians at Pampas to provide new land for the landowners.
From 1835 they ruled the Rosas with dictatorial methods, but in 1852 a united opposition managed to defeat him militarily. The following year, a new federal constitution was adopted. However, it took until 1861 before all of Argentina could be united in one republic.
The country was ruled by strong central governments. With the help of railways and new agricultural technology, Pampas was exploited. Freighters with freezer rooms began to cross the Atlantic. Wool, frozen meat, wheat and blue alfalfa (alfalfa) were exported to Europe. Argentina for a short period became one of the world’s richest countries and with British investments in railways and meat production laid the foundation for the country’s modern business world. The Indians at Pampas stood in the way of this development, but their resistance was crushed in the early 1880s. Several of the officers who defeated them received vast lands as rewards.
The need for labor increased. It was filled by European immigrants who mainly settled in cities and coastal areas.
The growing middle and working class in the cities demanded political influence, which has traditionally been limited to landowners. In the 1890s, two new left parties were formed, the Radical Party and the Socialist Party, and in the early 1900s European immigrants formed radical unions. The Radical Party was granted a hearing in 1912 for its demand for universal suffrage for men and its leader Hipólito Yrigoyen was elected president in 1916.
The Yrigoy was forced to reign in a coalition with conservative groups but managed to introduce pensions and a general school system and improved workers’ rights. But the president also had authoritarian moves and corruption prospered under his rule. High inflation hit hard on the working class and many strikes were carried out. In 1919, Russian-Jewish immigrants, accused of agitating for communism, were attacked by crowds and paramilitary forces.
The influx of European immigrants continued until the economic world depression in the 1930s. With it broke a long period of growth. The government’s authority was undermined and in 1930 the military took power.
The opposition was prevented from holding or boycotting the 1931 election won by General Augustín Pedro Justo. He was supported by a loosely composed political alliance, Concordancia, between conservative, liberal and reform-oriented socialist groups. A number of faltering and corrupt governments followed, supported by the military and dominated by landowners. For fear of losing their most important export market, the British were given far-reaching benefits in Argentina, including trade. But economic and social decay drove a group of young army commanders to seize power in 1943.
Life imprisonment for Videla
Former dictator Jorge Videla is sentenced to life imprisonment for crimes against humanity.
Néstor Kirchner dies
Former President Néstor Kirchner dies in a heart attack, 60 years old.
The conflict between Kirchner’s and the media companies continues
The Kirchner couple’s conflict with media companies Grupo Clarín and La Nación continues. In a report, the newspapers are accused of cooperating with the junta to force the Graiver family to sell the country’s only newsprint maker. The then owner David Graiver died under mysterious circumstances in a plane crash in 1976. According to the government, Grupo Clarín’s CEO would have threatened to kill Graiver’s widow if the family did not agree to sell the company.
Foreign exchange reserves can be used to pay off debts
President Cristina Fernández de Kirchner issues two decrees that require more than $ 6 billion to be taken from the foreign exchange reserve for debt repayment, both to multilateral and private lenders. The opposition goes to court to try to prevent this but loses. At the end of the month, the court approves the president’s decision.
Corruption charges mother couple Kirchner
New revelations come about that the president and her husband exchanged $ 2 million in October 2008 just before the international financial crisis picked up. Earlier, the opposition Citizens Coalition has accused the couple of enriching themselves illegally, as their private wealth has increased by 158 percent in 2008 alone.
New restrictions on ship traffic to the Falkland Islands
Argentina introduces new controls for vessels passing through the country’s territorial waters en route to the Falkland Islands.
The Governor is forced to step down
In early 2010, President Cristina Fernández de Kirchner dismissed Governor Martin Redrado via decree since he refused to allow the government to use over $ 6 billion from the foreign exchange reserve to pay off foreign debt. It is questioned whether the president has the right to dismiss Redrado, but after several trips in court he resigns himself.