Bangladesh Old History

By | January 2, 2023

Bangladesh is an independent nation in Southern Asia. With the capital city of Dhaka, Bangladesh 2020 population is estimated at 164,689,394 according to countryaah. For about 3,000 years, Bengal (Bangladesh and the Indian state of West Bengal) has been part of Buddhist, Hindu, Muslim or British empire in South Asia. In 1757, the British defeated the mogular army and Bengal became a British crown colony in 1858. Two British states were formed in 1947: India and Pakistan. The Bengal was divided, the eastern part came to Pakistan and called East Pakistan. In 1971, East Pakistan broke away from West Pakistan with Indian assistance and became the independent state of Bangladesh.

  • Comprehensive guide to and popular abbreviations of Bangladesh, covering history, economy, and social conditions.

Bengal emerged as a concept around the year 1000 BC. The area has formed a northeastern part of the Buddhist, Hindu, Muslim and British empires in South Asia. The mountains of eastern and southeastern Bengal have been a natural barrier to contacts further east. For Bangladesh political system, please check carswers.

Bengal was part of the Maurya Empire (c. 320-80 BC), which also included today’s India and Pakistan. Buddhist doctrine then began to spread in the area, but it was only during the Paladin dynasty (750-1505) that Buddhism became established throughout Bengal. Thereafter, the Hindu Senate dynasty ruled until Turkic Muslims conquered the area in the 13th century.

In the 16th century, the area was incorporated with the Mogul empire, which already covered the whole of India. Bengal was the richest province in the empire and served as a grain store and a source of supply for the army of the great mogul. Agriculture and trade flourished and Dhaka became one of South Asia’s textile centers, known for its muslin and silk production. During the mogul era, Islam gradually became the dominant religion in Bengal.

The British take over

As the mogul empire fell during the 17th and 18th centuries, the British settled in the area. The British East India Company conducted trading with the West Bengal Calcutta (Kolkata) as a starting point. The company took control of Bengal in 1757 by defeating the mogul ruler here at the Battle of Plassey.

After an Indian uprising, today’s Bangladesh, Pakistan and India became a British crown colony in 1858. Bengal became the largest province of British India.

For the British, the colony was primarily a commodity producer and a market for British goods. The famous textile craft in Bengal competed out. Agriculture has also stagnated.

Under British rule, a Western-influenced and well-educated middle class emerged, almost exclusively of Hindus, who soon came to dominate the business, education and administration. From this group a nationalist movement emerged and in 1885 the Indian National Congress was founded, which came to lead the Indian freedom struggle.

The Bengals are divided

Between 1905 and 1911, Bengal was divided into a western province with a Hindu majority and an eastern part that was predominantly Muslim. During that period, the All India Muslim League was formed in Dhaka. It was a party aimed at defending the interests of Muslims; The Indian National Congress was considered too Hindu-dominated. In the 1930s, the idea of ​​a separate Muslim state, Pakistan, was born among Muslim nationalists.

When the British era came to an end in 1947, two new independent states, India and Pakistan, were formed, mainly along religious lines. The richest and most developed part of Bengal – with the important port city of Calcutta (Kolkata) – came to India, while the poorer East Bengal became Pakistan’s eastern part. Both parts of Pakistan were 160 kilometers apart.

Government, military and industry were initially dominated by West Pakistan, which on the surface was larger than East Pakistan but had fewer residents. The fact that Urdu was made into a national language contributed to the dissatisfaction growing in East Pakistan, where the main language was Bengali.

Pakistan is shattered

In the first free elections of 1970, the East Pakistani Nationalist Party Awami Federation won a landslide victory in the populous eastern country end. This was sufficient for the majority of the Common Parliament. Party leader Sheikh Mujibur Rahman demanded far-reaching self-determination for East Pakistan. However, the President refused to convene Parliament, which triggered mass protests in East Pakistan.

In March 1971, the army entered Dhaka to end the protests, after which supporters of independence, led by the Awami League, proclaimed the Free Republic of Bangladesh. It led to civil war, and about 10 million people fled to India. In December 1971, India intervened in the conflict and within two weeks the West Pakistan was forced to capitulate.



The first ICT trial begins

The first trial in the newly established War Criminal Tribunal begins. The defendant is Delwar Hossain Sayadee, a member of Jamaat-e-Islami.


Strike against secularism

GDP and a number of Islamist parties are calling for a general strike in protest against the reintroduction of secularism into the constitution. It is the seventh general strike GDP has organized since the 2008 elections.


The BNP leader’s son is sentenced for money laundering

Khaleda Zia’s son Arafat Rahman is sentenced in his absence for money laundering under the mother’s rule, to six years in prison and $ 5.2 million in fines.

The system of transitional governments is abolished

The Parliament, dominated by the Awami League, approves amendments to the constitution which partly means that the country again becomes secular (non-religious state) and partly that the arrangement of transitional governments before parliamentary elections is abolished (see Political system). The number of seats in Parliament reserved for women is simultaneously increased from 45 to 50. The decision is followed by large demonstrations organized by GDP.

Over 650 border guards are sentenced to prison

More than 650 border guards are sentenced on the same day to prison for participation in the border guard myth (see February 2009).


New law on increased equality

Parliament adopts a new law that gives women equal rights as men in education, work, healthcare, inheritance and ownership; Islamists protest and say that the law violates the Qur’an regarding inheritance rights.


New rattles among textile workers

New violent riots erupt among textile workers when another major stock market crash occurs.

Bangladesh Old History