According to Politicsezine, Bulgaria is bordered by Romania to the north, Serbia and North Macedonia to the west, Greece and Turkey to the south, and the Black Sea to the east. Romania is a country located at the crossroads of Central, Eastern, and Southeastern Europe. It shares land borders with Bulgaria to the north, Ukraine to the northeast, Hungary to the northwest, Serbia to the southwest, Moldova to the east and northeast, and Dobruja in Bulgaria’s Black Sea littoral. The Danube River forms much of Romania’s eastern border with Bulgaria. To the west of Bulgaria lies Serbia which is a country located at Southeast Europe’s crossroads. It shares borders with Hungary to its north; Romania and Bulgaria on its east; North Macedonia on its south; Albania on its southwest; Bosnia and Herzegovina on its west; and Montenegro on its northwest. Further south lies Greece which is a country located in Southern Europe. It has land borders with Albania, North Macedonia and Bulgaria to its north; Turkey to its east; and sea borders with Italy in Ionian Sea and Egypt in Mediterranean Sea. Finally there is Turkey which is a transcontinental Eurasian country located mainly on Anatolia in Western Asia but also includes East Thrace or Istanbul peninsula in Southeast Europe. Its neighbors are Bulgaria at northwest border while Greece lies at west across Aegean Sea as well as Georgia at northeast corner while Armenia lies at east across Upper Euphrates River.
Government of Bulgaria
According to Programingplease, the government of Bulgaria is a unitary parliamentary republic. The Prime Minister is the head of government, while the President is the head of state. The government is divided into three branches: the executive, legislative and judicial. The executive branch consists of the Prime Minister, who leads the cabinet, and his deputies. The legislative branch includes the National Assembly, which consists of 240 members elected by popular vote for four-year terms. The judicial branch comprises the Supreme Judicial Council and local courts.
The Bulgarian Constitution sets out certain fundamental rights and freedoms for citizens, including freedom of speech and assembly; freedom from discrimination; equality before the law; protection from torture; freedom to practice any religion; and protection from unjustified search or seizure. Citizens also have a right to privacy in their homes, correspondence and telephone conversations. In addition, Bulgaria has ratified various international human rights instruments such as the European Convention on Human Rights and Fundamental Freedoms.
In recent years, Bulgaria has made significant advances in its economic development, with growth rates among some of the highest in Europe. This has been driven largely by an increase in foreign investment as well as reforms to improve transparency and reduce corruption in public administration. In addition to this progress on economic reforms, Bulgaria has also made advances in its democratic development over recent years with increased civil society participation in policy-making processes as well as improvements to its electoral system.
Recent Heads of Government of Bulgaria
The most recent Heads of Government of Bulgaria have been Boyko Borisov, Plamen Oresharski, and Ognyan Gerdzhikov.
Boyko Borisov was the Prime Minister from 2009 to 2013 and again from 2014 to 2021. He is a center-right politician and was the leader of the Citizens for European Development of Bulgaria (GERB) party. During his tenure he focused on improving infrastructure, reforming public administration, and reducing poverty levels. He also signed agreements with Russia and Turkey for energy projects that would help Bulgaria become more energy independent.
Plamen Oresharski was the Prime Minister from 2013 to 2014. He was an independent politician but had close ties with the Bulgarian Socialist Party (BSP). During his brief term he attempted to reduce poverty levels as well as reform public administration and reduce corruption in government institutions.
Ognyan Gerdzhikov held office as Prime Minister from 2017 to 2021. He is a member of GERB party and was an advocate for economic reforms that would create jobs and boost economic growth in Bulgaria. During his term he also focused on improving relations with neighbouring countries such as Greece, Serbia, Romania, North Macedonia, and Turkey. Additionally, he sought to improve education standards by introducing new initiatives such as free textbooks for school children and increased funding for higher education programs.
Major Political Parties in Bulgaria
The Bulgarian Socialist Party (BSP) is the successor of the Bulgarian Communist Party, which ruled Bulgaria from 1944 to 1990. It is a center-left party and was founded in 1989. The BSP has had a strong presence in politics since its inception and has won every national election since 1994, when it first took power. The party’s main policies include social justice, economic prosperity, and environmental protection. It advocates for stronger ties with the European Union and wants to build a more balanced economy.
The Movement for Rights and Freedoms (DPS) is an ethnic Turkish party that was founded in 1990. Its main focus is on protecting the rights of ethnic minorities in Bulgaria, particularly Turks and Roma people. The DPS has been an important partner in coalition governments since 2001, although it has never held full control of government on its own. Its policies focus on cultural rights, civil liberties, social justice, employment opportunities for minorities and regional development.
The Reformist Bloc is a center-right alliance between several parties that was formed in 2013. It includes three major parties: Democrats for Strong Bulgaria (DSB), Union of Democratic Forces (UDF) and Movement 21 (M21). The Reformist Bloc has become increasingly popular among younger voters and advocates for economic reform and fiscal responsibility as well as increased transparency in government operations. It also takes a pro-European stance on foreign policy issues such as immigration reform and closer ties with the European Union.