The People’s Republic of China is a country in East Asia and borders a total of 14 countries ( Vietnam, Laos, Myanmar, Bhutan, Nepal, India, Pakistan, Afghanistan, Tajikistan, Kyrgyzstan, Kazakhstan, Russia, Mongolia, North Korea ). The capital is Beijing.
The natural borders in the east and south are the Yellow Sea, the East and South China Sea, high mountains in the west and northeast, and steppe in the north. From north to south it is 4,500 km and 4,200 km from west to east.
China’s highest mountain is on the border with Nepal. Mount Everest in the Himalayas is also the highest mountain on earth at 8,848 meters. At around 6,300 km, the Yangtze River is the longest and most important river in the People’s Republic of China. China is home to more than 1.336 billion people, the world’s most populous country.
The Chinese mainland has an area of more than 9.5 million km² and is roughly divided into 3 areas.
The east of China is characterized by plains, large delta areas, coastal landscapes and low mountain ranges with an elevation of up to 500 meters.
China’s most important rivers end in the delta areas. In addition to the Yangtze River, the Huanghe (Yellow River) and the Xi Jiang are among them. Around 90 percent of all the country’s inhabitants live in the fertile plains.
In addition to the capital, China’s most important cities such as Shanghai, Chongqing and Xi’an as well as the special administrative zones of Hong Kong and Macao are located here.
The central and northern part of China consist of numerous mountains with large plateaus and basins as well as steppe areas. The mountains are up to 2,000 meters high.
Western China is characterized by high mountains and plateaus. The largest mountain range in China is the Himalayas. To the north of the high mountains and plateaus are dry desert and steppe areas.
China’s land area consists of 36 percent fertile arable land, 24 percent grassland, 9 percent forest and 2 percent wetlands, 21 percent desert and 6.5 percent wasteland. Cities in China take up 1.5 percent of the area.
China’s flora and fauna
According to best-medical-schools, there are approximately 6,300 vertebrate species in the People’s Republic of China. This is more than 10 percent of all vertebrate species in the world, which in itself is impressive. 2,469 vertebrate species live on land in China. The vast majority of these are bird species. In addition, 3,862 fish species were counted. In addition to vertebrates, there are hundreds of thousands of invertebrates with around 150,000 species of insects. The most endangered animal species include the large panda bear, the southern Chinese tiger or the Chinese river dolphin, which is considered to be almost extinct.
There are only 1,600 specimens of the panda bear in China. Therefore, donations to save these animals are also collected in Germany and you can find a corresponding panda breeding station in Chengdu, which does a great job here.
After Brazil and Malaysia, China is in 3rd place worldwide with 30,000 higher plant species. These include around 8,000 types of woody plants with 2,000 tree species alone. There are also 2,000 edible plant species in China. 3,000 plant species are used for medicinal purposes. Known species are ginseng, safflower, fenugreek and notoginseng, which are important components of traditional Chinese medicine, which is also extremely effective in this country. The diverse types of ornamental plants are also popular. These include the colorful peonies or rhododendron species.
The climate in China
The climate in China is geographically very diverse. There are a total of 18 different climate zones.
The continental climate in the west, north and northeast ensures very cold winters and hot summers. In the northeast of the country in particular, the winters are very cold and dry. The snow falls in November and remains there for 6 months. Summer, on the other hand, is warm and hot and humid in July / August. Large parts of the northwest and central China are determined by the dry desert and steppe climate.
A temperate climate in the east brings a cool winter. Spring and autumn are significantly longer and more pleasant than in the north or northeast. In summer it gets hot, rainy and muggy.
Parts of the east and south of China are influenced by the subtropical or tropical climate with long, hot summers and short winters. The subtropical climate in the east and southeast brings mild and dry winters. Summer is tropical hot with lots of rainfall.
Parts of the southeast and south are subject to tropical climates. In winter, the temperatures hardly drop below 20 ° C. Summer is hot and humid with many rainy days.
The high mountain climate is characterized by high temperature differences. In winter it gets very cold at night. During the day the sun is almost always shining and the temperatures rise above freezing. Summer becomes mild and rainy but by no means uncomfortable. The climate, depending on the season, can be quite pleasant and tourists can get used to it very quickly.