History in Tibet, China

By | July 19, 2022

According to Topschoolsoflaw, the Tibetan state arose in the 7th century. His education is associated with the name of King Songtsen Gampo, who ruled in 617-649. He managed to unite the Tibetan tribes, create a militarily powerful state, and prepare the first set of laws in the history of Tibet. Under him, Buddhism began to penetrate the territory of Tibet, and Tibetan writing also arose.

7th-8th centuries – heyday of Tibet. The Tibetan rulers had a strong influence on the situation in Central Asia. They extended their power to Sikkim, Bhutan, Nepal, maintained trade and economic relations with Tang China, and in 763 Tibetan troops even captured its capital, the city of Chang’an (modern Xi’an).

Between the 10th and 12th centuries Tibet broke up into several provinces; this time was called the “Dark Age”. In the XIII century. Tibet fell into dependence on the Mongols, which ceased with the fall in the XIV century. Yuan dynasty.

At the end of the XIV – beginning of the XV centuries. the monk Tsongkaba founded a new Buddhist sect Gelugba, the head of which since the 16th century. took on the title of Dalai Lama. By the middle of the XVII century. the Gelugba sect became dominant in Tibet, and the Dalai Lama became the spiritual and secular head of the country. By this time, the process of unification of the country was completed. Militarily weak Tibet more than once fell under the influence of stronger neighbors.

In 1720, the Chinese undertook a military expedition to Lhasa, thus putting an end to the Mongol influence in the region. The Chinese were then greeted as liberators. Tibet was declared a protectorate of China. The imperial court sent its residents (ambans) to Lhasa, who exercised supreme control over the activities of the Tibetan government.

At the end of XIX – beginning of XX centuries. Tibet becomes an object of British expansion. On August 3, 1904, British troops entered Lhasa, and on September 7, 1904, an agreement was signed that granted Great Britain significant privileges in Tibet. This situation provoked opposition from the Russian government, as a result of which, in 1907, an Anglo-Russian agreement appeared, according to which the parties pledged to respect the territorial integrity of Tibet and not interfere in its internal administration.

In 1910, the Manchus invaded, forcing the Dalai Lama to seek refuge under the protection of the British administration in India. The Xinhai Revolution that took place in China in 1911 made it possible to expel Chinese troops from Tibet, and in January 1913 the thirteenth Dalai Lama returned to Lhasa, announcing the termination of all ties with Beijing. In response to this, troops were sent to Tibet from China, and an armed conflict broke out.

The tense situation on the Tibetan-Chinese border persisted until the mid-1930s, resulting in armed clashes between Tibetan and Chinese troops. On November 4, 1949, the so-called Grand Assembly, which consisted of representatives of the government, monasteries and officials, officially declared the independence of Tibet.

Since the 1950s, the situation has begun to worsen again. In October 1950, units of the People’s Liberation Army of China began to advance towards the central regions of the country. The Tibetan government accepted the proposal of the PRC government, and on May 23, 1951, in Beijing, between representatives of the PRC government and the authorities of Tibet, an “Agreement on Measures for the Peaceful Liberation of Tibet” was signed, which gave it the right to exercise national autonomy within the PRC. In March 1959, an uprising broke out in Lhasa, as a result of which the fourth Dalai Lama emigrated to India, and a system of military control committees was organized in Tibet. In 1965, the Tibet Autonomous Region was established.


Lhasa is the capital of Tibet. The city became an important administrative center already in the 6th century, but few buildings from that time have survived. In the heart of the city is the most revered Tibetan monastery Jokan (Jhokang), whose name translates as “Buddha’s House”. Currently, the monastery has more than 250 sculptural images and statues of Buddhist deities, lamaist saints, Tibetan rulers. Jokan is surrounded by the sacred Balkhor Square with the largest Tibetan market. The majestic Potala Palace rises above Lhasa, a famous monument of oriental architecture. The Potala served as the seat of the Dalai Lamas and was also the seat of the Tibetan government. The palace has more than 1,000 rooms, a third of which are currently open to tourists. The Dalai Lama’s former summer residence, Norbulingka Palace, is also located in Lhasa. It was built in the 18th century. and is a complex consisting of several summer palaces of the Dalai Lamas. Colorful exotic flowers and rare species of trees grow in the palace park.

Above Lhasa, at a level of 4500 m, is the third most important monastery in Tibet – Ganden (Ganden). It was founded in 1409 by Tsongkhapa and was the first Gelugpa school. A sacred detour (kora) around the monastery will open up beautiful views of the landscapes of Tibet. Here is the famous cave of Tsongkhapa, where he spent many years in meditation. Drepung Monastery is located 8 km west of Lhasa, which is one of the largest monasteries in the world and represents an entire city. The monastery was built in 1416. Drepung occupies a large area; many buildings are interconnected by passages and stairs at several levels at once. Sera Monastery is located 5 km north of Lhasa.

Sera is a whole city with streets and courtyards in which temples are located. In the garden at the end of the street, debates of the monks are held every afternoon.

The city of Zamsan in the vicinity of Lhasa has one of the world’s largest exploited thermal springs.

History in Tibet, China