India Arts History

By | October 17, 2021

The art of the Muslim period (XII-XV century) and of the following Moghūl (16th-18th century), characterized by constant Persian and Turkish tendencies, gave rise to interesting encounters with Hindu artistic traditions, which managed to manifest themselves with new expressive possibilities, often coming to blend in perfect synthesis with Islamic aesthetics (Indo-Muslim style). According to itypeauto, the most significant manifestations of Indo-Muslim art occur not only in Delhi, which was the capital of the Sultanate from the century. XII to the century. XV, but also in the so-called Provincial States, which, taking advantage of the weakening of central power, managed to create not only political but also artistic independence, until the Mughal Empire reabsorbed everything under its supremacy, imposing a political and artistic unity. In the Bengal region, so geographically distant from Delhi, the architectural style that was developed is due to the use of brick, the only material found in an alluvial terrain such as the Bengali one, which gave the buildings a compact and heavy appearance appropriate to the climatic situation of the country. The stone, imported from afar, was used sparingly both for structural purposes and for decorative reasons, flanked, at times, by Hindu-style glazed tiles. In the two Bengali capitals Gaur and Pandua, the best preserved buildings are the mosques, which generally have no courtyard, except for the Adina Masǧid of Pandua (1374-75), and have an oblong prayer room, open by many doors. and covered by a series of domes, among which the use of brick, the only material found in an alluvial terrain such as the Bengali one, which gave the buildings a compact and heavy appearance appropriate to the climatic situation of the country.

The stone, imported from afar, was used sparingly both for structural purposes and for decorative reasons, flanked, at times, by Hindu-style glazed tiles. In the two Bengali capitals Gaur and Pandua, the best preserved buildings are the mosques, which generally have no courtyard, except for the Adina Masǧid of Pandua (1374-75), and have an oblong prayer room, open by many doors. and covered by a series of domes, among which the use of brick, the only material found in an alluvial terrain such as the Bengali one, which gave the buildings a compact and heavy appearance appropriate to the climatic situation of the country. The stone, imported from afar, was used sparingly both for structural purposes and for decorative reasons, flanked, at times, by Hindu-style glazed tiles. In the two Bengali capitals Gaur and Pandua, the best preserved buildings are the mosques, which generally have no courtyard, except for the Adina Masǧid of Pandua (1374-75), and have an oblong prayer room, open by many doors. and covered by a series of domes, among which the which gave the buildings a compact and heavy appearance appropriate to the climatic situation of the country. The stone, imported from afar, was used sparingly both for structural purposes and for decorative reasons, flanked, at times, by Hindu-style glazed tiles. In the two Bengali capitals Gaur and Pandua, the best preserved buildings are the mosques, which generally have no courtyard, except for the Adina Masǧid of Pandua (1374-75), and have an oblong prayer room, open by many doors. and covered by a series of domes, among which the which gave the buildings a compact and heavy appearance appropriate to the climatic situation of the country. The stone, imported from afar, was used sparingly both for structural purposes and for decorative reasons, flanked, at times, by Hindu-style glazed tiles. In the two Bengali capitals Gaur and Pandua, the best preserved buildings are the mosques, which generally have no courtyard, except for the Adina Masǧid of Pandua (1374-75), and have an oblong prayer room, open by many doors. and covered by a series of domes, among which the chauchala, a curved roof with two or four slopes of indigenous tradition. Of this type are the Chota Sona Masǧid (Little Golden Mosque) and the Bara Sona Masǧid (Great Golden Mosque) both in Gaur. The small kingdom of Jaunpur, under the Sharqi dynasty (late 14th-15th century) became one of the most refined centers of culture and art in India. Here the architectural style, exemplified in the remaining mosques, Àtala Masǧid, Ǧami Masǧid, is influenced by the Delhi Sultanate.

This is evident both in the plan of the mosques that follow traditional models and in the inclination of the walls of the towers that frame the entrance to the prayer hall, the latter emphasized by the presence of a large īwān of Persian style. The Gujarat region (in the 14th-mid-16th centuries) kept the Indian tradition intact, both for the refined stone-working technique and for the architectural models followed, in Jain and Hindu style. In Malwa, the meeting point between the regions of the North, Gujarat and Deccan, the architectural style was affected by this plurality of influences. In the capital Mandu, the natural landscape rich in water and vegetation integrates perfectly with the religious and civil architecture creating pleasant scenographic effects. Made of a beautiful local sandstone, the buildings are often embellished with glazed tiles, with marble decorations, with stones of various colors. In addition to the Great Mosque of Mandu we remember the Jahāz Mahal (Palazzo Nave) formed by a series of pavilions that stand out on a terrace of a narrow and long building, and the Ashraph Mahal (Palace of the Gold Coins). In the southern states of the Deccan (mid-14th century-late 18th century), in the long period of autonomy a style developed that was influenced on one side by the influence of Delhi, on the other by Timurid Persia, due to the presence of the class politics that was of Persian origin. Apart from the unusual Ǧami Masǧid of due to the presence of the political class which was of Persian origin. Apart from the unusual Ǧami Masǧid of due to the presence of the political class which was of Persian origin. Apart from the unusual Ǧami Masǧid of Gulbarga, without a courtyard and minaret, in Bidar the madrasa of Maḥmūd Gawan, both for the architectural layout (the four īwān and the cylindrical multi-storey minarets) and for the glazed tile cladding, is a perfect example of Timurid architecture. In Bijapur the most evident influences are of Ottoman origin and are highlighted in the bulbous shape of the domes, in the domed turrets, in the profusion of ornaments. Of this type are the Mithar Mahal, the Ibrahim Rauza, the Gol Gumbaz. Kashmir gave birth to a completely original type of architecture that remained tied to Hindu and Buddhist construction methods, to the use of the beautiful local wood (the deodar cedar) alternating with brick courses, and with the influence of Persian-Central Asian construction expressed above all in the plan with four īwān. Interesting starting from the century. XII was the luxuriant flowering of the schools of painting, such as that of Bengal (XII-XIX centuries), so important for the consequences in Nepalese and Tibetan art, and that of Rājpūt (XIV-XIX centuries), in the subdivision of the two strands pahāri and rājasthānī, whose roots were rooted in the ancient Jain tradition of the Gujarat school, developed under the protection of the Cālukya in the century. XII and lasted until the century. XVII.

India Arts History