Mongolia is an independent nation in Eastern Asia. With the capital city of Ulaanbaatar, Mongolia 2020 population is estimated at 3,278,301 according to countryaah. In southwestern Mongolia, there are archaeological remains of human settlement that are considered to be between 100,000 and 200,000 years old. Around 1000 BC, the people in the area that is today Mongolia could work bronze. Around 300 BC, the iron weapons began to be used, while various clans formed alliances. Chinese sources speak of an invasion from the Mongolian territory at this time by a clan association called xiongnu. Some researchers have, on uncertain grounds, wanted to identify this as the people in European history known as the Huns.
The clans on the vast Mongolian plains were small for a long time and felt little affinity with each other. However, in the beginning of the 13th century AD, a number of Mongolian clans and some non-Mongolian groups were united in a firmly organized state formation under the leader Temüdjin. He was proclaimed ruler in 1206 under the name of Genghis Khan. Khan means chief.
- AbbreviationFinder.org: Comprehensive guide to and popular abbreviations of Mongolia, covering history, economy, and social conditions.
Djingi’s khan and his descendants undertook huge conquest trains and succeeded, not least thanks to new combat techniques, in capturing large parts of the Eurasian land mass. They reached the west to Austria, further south to the Adriatic and eastern Mediterranean, and east to Korea. But no united kingdom ever arose. For Mongolia political system, please check carswers.
At the death of Djingi’s khan in 1227, the kingdom was divided between his sons. Genghis Khan’s grandson Khubilai khan (great man 1260–1294) conquered all of China and founded the Chinese dynasty Yuan. He moved his capital from Karakorum to current Beijing. Khubilai Khan’s brother Batu invaded Russia in 1240 and founded the “Golden Horde Empire”. It lasted for 240 years, until 1480, and contributed to the emergence of a Mongolian writing language and a more uniform Mongolian culture.
The Mongols were too few to hold their giant kingdom together in the long run. It gradually collapsed and the Mongols retreated to their core land. At the end of the 17th century, Mongolia was conquered by the Chinese Empire, which was ruled by the Manchus. Even then, Outer and Inner Mongolia (see Geography) came to be administered as separate provinces.
Encouraged by the fall of the Manchud dynasty in China and with some support from Tsar Russia and Japan, Outer Mongolia in 1911 proclaimed an independent monarchy under the Living Buddha (Bogd Chaan), the title of the head of the Buddhist Mongols. Inner Mongolia was also invited to join, which led to conflict with China. Russian, Chinese and Mongolian representatives agreed at a meeting in 1915 that the outer Mongolia would continue to be an autonomous province within China. In reality, however, Outer Mongolia was a Russian protectorate.
When Russia weakened during the 1917 revolution and the Soviet Union was formed, China seized control of Mongolia. A Chinese general marched into the country and the Mongols in 1920 gave up all power to the Chinese.
An underground revolutionary Mongolian movement had been formed in 1917, inspired by the Russian Revolution and led by Damdiny Süchbaatar. The movement was merged with others into the Mongolian People’s Party (MPP), which negotiated Soviet support for independence from the Chinese. In exchange, Russia demanded a Soviet-friendly government in Mongolia.
The Mongolian People’s Party held a conference in Soviet territory in 1921 where it formed a revolutionary government in opposition to the government in Urga, which was then called the capital of Mongolia. This provisional government set up a partisan force which, together with major Soviet forces in July 1921, conquered Urga and proclaimed a new government under King Bogdo Gegen. The king, however, lacked power.
In 1924, the Mongolian People’s Party changed its name to the Mongolian People’s Revolutionary Party (MPRP). That same year, however, Bogdo Gegen. Despite China’s protests, but with the support of the Soviet Union, the Mongolian People’s Republic was now proclaimed. A Soviet model constitution was adopted which gave the Communist Party power monopoly. Mongolia became the second socialist state in the world and for 60 years came to function in many respects as a Soviet sub-republic.
The new regime immediately began to transform the country according to Soviet designs. All opposition to the Communist Party was suppressed while companies and other assets were nationalized. Financial planning was carried out at central level and the development would follow government directives in so-called five-year plans. The power of the nobility and the Buddhist priests was broken by hard methods, including mass executions and devastation of the monasteries (see Religion). When the regime in the early 1930s tried to force the cattle owners into a jointly owned collective, it led to popular uprisings, which were defeated with the help of the Soviet military. Purges followed and power was concentrated in 1939 to Marshal Chorloogijn Tjojbalsan, often referred to as Mongolia’s Stalin. The forced collectivization of livestock management was halted, but was later carried out step by step through economic pressure.
In 1939, a Japanese invasion of Manchuria was fought back by Mongolian and Soviet troops. Following the Japanese defeat, a ceasefire was announced in August 1945, when Mongolia declared war on Japan. Mongol forces advanced all the way to the Chinese Pacific coast but were subsequently withdrawn.