Only from 1980 did the United States begin to regain its foreign policy aggressive role. It happened initially after the Islamic Revolution in Iran in 1979 and the subsequent humiliating occupation of the US embassy in the country in November of that year. In April 1980, the superpower carried out military action in Iran in an attempt to free the hostages. The action failed, but at the same time showed willingness in the North American people to support military actions under certain conditions. Visit Countryaah for detailed information about North America, Central America, and South America. The paralysis after the Vietnam War – the so-called Vietnam syndrome – was so small to be overcome.
Following Ronald Reagan’s takeover of the presidential post in January 1981, the superpower formulated an aggressive “roll-back” strategy towards “international communism”. This was achieved through massive support for the counter-revolutionary forces in Afghanistan, Angola and Nicaragua. In 1983, at the same time, the superpower was quick to exploit the divide in the progressive government of Grenada. Under the pretext of wanting to save North American medical students in the country, in October the United States invaded the country and installed its own sound regime. The invasion gained some international and domestic political support and made it clear that the United States had overcome its Vietnam syndrome. At the same time, the invasion was a test of a new strategy developed by the United States military in the period following the repugnant defeat in Vietnam. When and if the United States militarily intervenes militarily, it should take the form of swift action, in which the superpower, through a huge military overweight, had to secure victory in a matter of days or weeks. At the same time, the media had to undergo a severe censorship. In Vietnam, during the 1960’s, the US had been dragged ever deeper into a morass, (corpses) helped undermine domestic support for the crusade against communism.
Media coverage of the war first changed course around 1968. Throughout the ’50’s and’ 60’s, the media supported the war, but by 68 the US military had recognized that the war could not be won, and so did the country’s business life. The media’s criticism of the war from that point on was therefore not an expression of independence, but merely another example of their conformity to the wishes of the rulers. At the same time, they were subjected to considerable pressure from the anti-war movement, which until then had been totally ignored or mocked as unpatriotic troublemakers.
Throughout the 1980’s, the superpower expanded its support for counter-revolutionary movements. Most extensive was the one in Afghanistan where the Afghans received training and large arms supplies to fight the Soviet invasion forces in the country. In addition, the United States channeled large supplies to the so-called contraindications, which from Honduras fought the Sandinist government in Nicaragua. The supply was increasingly suspiciously organized. As early as 1983, the United States had organized the first large arms shipment to the counterclaims. These were weapons Israel had conquered from the Palestinians in Beirut, following the Israeli invasion of Lebanon in 82. When the democratically controlled Congress in 1985-86 put a cap on the extent of official assistance to the counterterrorism, the government organized secret shipments. The first phase consisted in conducting secret arms sales to Iran – which was officially one of the main enemies of the United States. From the proceeds of this sale, weapons were purchased which were transferred to the counterparties. The entire operation was coordinated by Colonel Oliver North from his White House office and in the late ’80’s rolled up in the media as the Iran-contra scandal. The government needed to divert criticism and, during 1989, organized a hate campaign against its own former CIA agent and then dictator in Panama: General Manuel Noriega. The campaign culminated in December 89 with the North American invasion of Panama. An invasion aimed at testing a number of newly developed advanced North American weapon systems, which laser-guided “precision bombs” and the “invisible” B-1 bomber.
The collapse of Eastern Europe in 1989-90 created a new geopolitical situation that drastically strengthened the United States at the expense of the Soviet Union. The United States further accelerated this development as the superpower, following Iraq’s invasion of Kuwait in August 1990, brought together the largest military alliance and force after World War II. When the United States, with its enormous military overweight, had defeated the Iraqi forces and ended the war, then-US President George Bush launched the term, “The New World Order.” For the superpower, the specific content of this concept consisted in the fact that the United States had recaptured the role of world police officer, and had shown both the ability and willingness to act thus. At the same time, however, the Gulf War also revealed that the world’s police officer had become poorer than in the 50’s and 60’s. The United States had to go begging to Germany, Japan and especially the rich Arab oil states, to get them to finance the police operation. That the political content of the demonstration was the most important was confirmed by the fact that Bush, in the immediate aftermath of the Gulf War, drastically cut North American military spending.
Following the 1989-91 parade shows, US military action was considerably more difficult. The superpower was weakened economically against Europe, where Germany joined forces and rapidly growing. During the same period, Japan expanded rapidly in the North American market. At the same time, North American voters were more interested in the unemployment and economic crisis in the United States than in military adventures.
After losing the November 1992 presidential election – mainly because of the continuing deep economic crisis – in December, President Bush sent 28,000 North American soldiers to Somalia. An invasion force and a problem his successor Bill Clinton was allowed to take over. Unlike Grenada, Panama and Iraq, defeating an identified enemy was not possible in a matter of days or weeks. The invasion pulled out, the North American soldiers began to return to the United States in bodybags, and it did not arouse enthusiasm among North American TV viewers to see their own soldiers being killed and dragged behind a jeep through the streets of Mogadishu. The United States was eventually forced to withdraw its troops – without the world’s police officer had been able to separate the warring parties or resolve the conflict.
Bermuda, a British colony of local self-government, consisting of 150 coral islands in the Atlantic Ocean 1,200 km southeast of New York; 53 km2, 64,200 residents (2010), capital Hamilton. 20 of the islands are inhabited and most of these are connected by road bridges and dams.
Despite its remote location, Bermuda has developed into one of the world’s most prosperous communities; average income of $ 84,381 per population (2013) is among the highest in the world.
The islands are located near the northeast passage of the Northeast Passage to the United States, and British military presence early secured the colony fixed incomes; Bermuda still has British and American military bases. Of greater importance, however, is the massive influx of especially American tourists, approximately ½ mio. per year. The large tourism sector makes the economy very sensitive to the economic situation in the United States. Bermuda is an exclusive tourist destination; with a pleasant climate, a beautiful, lush landscape and all kinds of water sports at pink and white beaches of coral sand.
The islands’ coral reefs rest on an underwater volcano that rises 5,000 m above the seabed, and it is farther from the equator than any other coral reef. High sea temperatures are due to the Gulf Stream. There are no actual streams in the calcareous, porous soil, and water supply is based on rainwater; therefore, flat roofs with drains for water tanks are a characteristic part of the architecture.
Bermuda is one of the centers for so-called offshore businesses, where a large number of insurance companies and shipping companies take advantage of the country’s liberal legislation.
The islands were discovered in the early 1500-t. by the Spanish seafarer Juan Bermudez, but was uninhabited until a group of English emigrants stranded there in 1609. From 1612, the islands were colonized adjacent to Virginia, which was under the English crown. In 1615 they were subordinated to the purpose-created company Somers Island Company. The company launched a settlement with English immigrants and African slaves.
Later, Portuguese labor was imported from Madeira and the Azores. The first Parliament of the Commonwealth outside the British Isles was established in Bermuda in 1620, and from 1684 the islands were administered as an English Crown Colony. In 1797, the British established a permanent military base, and as in the rest of the British Empire, slavery was abolished in 1834.
During the American Civil War (1861-65), due to their location, the islands were the starting point for attempts to break the naval blockade against the Southern States. During the Prohibition era in the United States (1920-33), spirits were smuggled from Bermuda to the United States. In 1941, the United States entered into an agreement with Britain to lease a naval and air base (the islands’ only airport) for 99 years.
The British garrison was withdrawn from Bermuda in 1957; in 1968 the islands got a new constitution, which entailed the introduction of a certain autonomy. In the 1970’s, social and political unrest was followed by proposals for full independence. Social inequalities have since diminished, and fears of political and economic instability in connection with a secession from Britain and the possible consequences this would have for the welfare of the islands have so far put a damper on the independence efforts.
In 1995, the United States closed its air base on St. George’s Island, and the same year a referendum showed a clear majority to maintain affiliation with Britain.
British Virgin Islands
British Virgin Islands, British Virgin Islands, British territory, archipelago in the Caribbean northeast of the former Danish West Indies; 130 km2, 27,800 residents (2012). The islands have local self-government. 80% of the population lives on the main island of Tortola with the capital Road Town; by the way, Anegada and Virgin Gorda are the largest islands. The economy is completely dominated by tourism; one caters to an exclusive clientele offered secluded white beaches and entire private islands for rent. Furthermore, the archipelago is visited by a large number of cruise ships and yachts. With uncertain future prospects for Hong Kong and other traditional offshore financial centers have a number of companies sheltered in the territory’s liberal economic atmosphere.
The islands were discovered by Spaniards as early as 1493, and in the 1600’s. both Dutch, French and English began to take an interest in them. In 1672, the English captured Tortola, and some of the Dutch residents fled to the newly established Danish colony on the neighboring island of St. Thomas, where they became the majority of the European population. In 1680, the first British plantations were planted on Virgin Gorda. A large part of the residents are descendants of Africans who worked as slaves on the plantations. From 1872 to 1956, the British Virgin Islands were part of the Leeward Islands colony.
The population has since the 1700’s. has been in close trade with the residents of the Danish West Indies, since 1917 the US Virgin Islands, and many residents have since the abolition of slavery in 1834 sought work as sailors, coal miners and servants in Charlotte Amalie on Sankt Thomas or as farm workers on Sankt Jan. There is a ferry connection between Tortola and St. Thomas.
The small uninhabited Norman Island is said to be the model for RL Stevenson’s novel Treasure Island (1883).