Romania During and After World War I

By | January 14, 2022

At the outbreak of the world war, Romania was, it is true, linked with the Triplex and its king could hide sympathy for the central powers, but public opinion was, however, for France and for the Entente. The example of Italy’s declaration of neutrality was very useful, which also led to that of Romania (see Lilio Cialdea, Italy and Romania in neutrality, in Studii Italiene, I, 1934, p. 91 ff.). Meanwhile King Charles died (10 October 1914) and was succeeded by Ferdinand I, Prince of Hohenzollern and nephew of Charles. After various events (for which v. XVIII, pp. 103-104), on August 17, 1916 the treaty between Romania and the Allies was signed and on August 27 Romania entered the war (for the events of the world war v. XVIII, pp. 131-132). The German victory was overwhelming, Bucharest occupied, the government had to take refuge in Moldavia and Romania was forced, after the separate peace of Russia in Brest Litovsk, to sign the terrible “peace of Bucharest” on 7 May 1918 (see VIII, pp.. 6-7). However, this peace treaty was never ratified and was naturally annulled by the final victory of the Entente. After the peace of Bucharest, Romania had returned to neutral and was governed by a Germanophile ministry headed by Alexandru Marghiloman. The victories of the allies in the Balkans, however, changed the situation in the autumn of 1918; On 3 nombre the population of Bucharest is already allowing anti-German demonstrations. On November 6, Marghiloman’s government was declared lapsed, the dissolved chambers and the decrees issued were declared null and void. King Ferdinand appoints General Constantin Coandă as prime minister. On November 10, the mobilization is ordered to continue the war on the side of the allies and a On November 6, Marghiloman’s government was declared lapsed, the dissolved chambers and the decrees issued were declared null and void. King Ferdinand appoints General Constantin Coandă as prime minister. On November 10, the mobilization is ordered to continue the war on the side of the allies and a On November 6, Marghiloman’s government was declared lapsed, the dissolved chambers and the decrees issued were declared null and void. King Ferdinand appoints General Constantin Coandă as prime minister.

According to searchforpublicschools, on November 10, the mobilization is ordered to continue the war on the side of the allies and a ultimatum to General Mackensen to evacuate the occupied territory of Romania within 24 hours. From 6 November, the advance of the French troops commanded by General Berthelot over the Danube near Giurgiu had also begun. On November 12, Bucharest was already cleared, but only on the 16th regular relations were established between the government of Iaşi and General Berthelot. On December 1, King Ferdinand can return to Bucharest at the head of the army, having Queen Maria and General Berthelot beside him. But in the meantime the collapse of the Austro-Hungarian monarchy had also occurred. On October 27, an assembly gathered in Cernăuţi proclaimed the union of Bucovina to Romania without conditions; on 1 December a large assembly gathered in Alba Iulia and composed of 1228 delegates, representing the 130 electoral districts of the 27 Romanian committees, proclaims the union of all Romanians of Transylvania, Banat and Hungary to the kingdom of Romania. These two acts of extreme importance for the nation followed the declaration of Bessarabia which already on January 24, 1918 (old style) had declared that it wanted to join the kingdom of Romania. The troops were immediately sent to take possession of the new provinces. The occupation of Bucovina was peaceful; that of Transylvania was peaceful only at first, Hungary having then opposed it with arms. The troops were immediately sent to take possession of the new provinces. The occupation of Bucovina was peaceful; that of Transylvania was peaceful only at first, Hungary having then opposed it with arms. The troops were immediately sent to take possession of the new provinces. The occupation of Bucovina was peaceful; that of Transylvania was peaceful only at first, Hungary having then opposed it with arms.

After the communist revolution broke out in Budapest and Hungary, a blockade was formed around Hungary to prevent Béla Kun’s Bolshevism from spreading to other states. The Romanian army received the order to advance against Hungary on April 16, 1919. Between April 16 and 18 a serious battle was fought in the Western Mountains (Munţii Apuseni), breaking the Hungarian front; on 1 May the revolutionary Hungarians were driven back across the Tisza. Following the Hungarian offensive against Czechoslovakia, the Romanian troops crossed the Tisza. After the peaceful promises of Béla Kun, however, the troops were withdrawn. But the Hungarian Bolshevik threat worried the nations and at the beginning of July the inter-allied council in Paris thought of an action to occupy Budapest and disarm the red army. On July 17, the Hungarian red troops attacked the Romanian army; the battle lasted several days and on the 24th the Romanian counterattack took place which lasted until the 26th and ended with the full Romanian victory. On 29 July the army passed the Tisza and marched towards the Hungarian capital. Although the Bolshevik government had already fallen on 2 August and Béla Kun had fled to Austria, on 4 August the Romanian troops entered Budapest and remained there until mid-September. At the peace conference, Romania obtained almost all the territories to which the rosiest nationalist predictions aspired (except for a part of Banat attributed to Yugoslavia). For the Trianon treaty (June 4, 1920), Romania received Transylvania, most of Banat and a part of ancient Hungary where it is located, mostly or not, a Romanian population; with the Treaty of Sèvres (10 August 1920) Romania received the Bucovina.

With the Treaty of Neuilly (November 27, 1919), Romania sanctioned the borders already established in the 1913 Bucharest peace towards Bulgaria. There remained the thorny question of the recognition of the union of Bessarabia which was done only by some powers, after some time.

In the postwar period, Romania had to overcome serious internal difficulties, especially economic ones. A rather serious issue was the dynastic one, due to the renunciation of the throne of the crown prince Charles (28 December 1925 – 4 January 1926). On the death of King Ferdinand (20 July 1927) the young son of Carlo, Michele, was proclaimed king with a council of regency; but on June 7, 1930, Prince Charles flew back to Bucharest and was proclaimed king with the name of Charles II. As a foreign policy, Romania joined the Little Entente. Inside, reforms were necessary, such as the agrarian reform that expropriated the landowners in favor of the peasants, promulgated on 15 December 1918 for the ancient kingdom and then completed on 16 June 1921 and followed by special laws for the annexed provinces.

Romania During and After World War I