Kerensky had been at the head of the July anti-Bolshevik repression; Feeling that the position of the Bolsheviks was weakened, that the right – however momentarily hardened – could have no hope in the near future, he placed himself at the head of a new ministerial grouping, which, according to his words, was intended to save the revolution. The representatives of the markedly “bourgeois” groupings left the ministry, which, despite its anti-Bolshevik action, ended up taking on a socialist aspect. Shortly thereafter, Kerensky joins in his person the functions of prime minister with those of minister of war and the navy. Apparently Kerensky is the most powerful man in Russia: in reality, the working masses of the great centers, once the disorientation of the failed July riot has passed, they are regrouping more and more decisively around the Bolsheviks; the offensive in Galicia, wanted by Kerensky, has failed and the desertions and manifestations of indiscipline increase day by day. The conservative and nationalist currents, despite being prepared at such a dangerous and uncertain moment not to touch the main achievements of the revolution, no longer have faith in Kerensky and hope for a military dictatorship, supported by right-wing formations.
On 28 August (10 September), General Kornilov attempts to occupy Petrograd in order to dissolve the Soviet and to establish a more or less disguised dictatorship. Kerensky’s attitude is one of the most uncertain, even according to his opponents on the right and on the left. The legal government, the “democratic” forces, the Mensheviks and the Socialist Revolutionaries cannot prevent the Bolsheviks from taking the lead in the struggle against Kornilov. The military attempt fails in a short time and the consequence is that the Bolsheviks are far more fortified than before their failure in July. In fact, a few weeks later, on 25 October (7 November) 1917, the Bolsheviks attacked and seized Petrograd. The fight is much longer and fiercer in Moscow,
According to globalsciencellc, the disorganization caused by the war, the riots, the revolution, seem for some time to create an unsustainable situation for the new regime. In Ukraine, in Siberia, etc., the opponents of Bolshevism are organized. Soviet power extends over an important area, because it includes the main urban centers, but relatively small.
Immediately the new regime grants the peasants the right to take possession of the land; workers’ control was imposed on private industry, which was not nationalized at the time; only in the course of a few years are internal trade and private industrial establishments nationalized. Meanwhile, in March 1918 the peace was signed with the Central Empires: following this the Allies actively supported the local anti-Bolshevik governments, very different from each other and constantly changing in their political orientations, which arose a little everywhere, in the most different regions; also the Czechoslovakian legions formed in Russia during the world war (to fight against Austria) actively participated in the fight against the Bolsheviks. L’ foreign intervention benefited the provision of the so-called white armies, but perhaps also contributed to discrediting them. The Czechoslovak legions from the Urals pushed on July 25, 1918 to Ekaterinburg, where on July 16 of the same year, before the Czechoslovakians arrived, the Bolsheviks had killed the imperial family. Allied troops in some parts of Russia were relatively scarce and did not want to work hard, having hoped at first that their appearance alone would produce the intended intimidating effect. The counter-revolutionary forces had placed excessive reliance on it: moreover, if the “reds” were threatened by a lack of supplies and capable officers, by the difficulty of communications, “whites” they disagreed with each other and only momentarily did the supporters of the monarchy and the military dictatorship manage to reach an agreement with the anti-Bolshevik liberals and socialists. In fact, a struggle for dominance was constantly developing between these heterogeneous forces. One after the other, the white armies of Kolchak, Denikin, Wrangel (Vrangel ′) were defeated by the Red Army. A large part of the old Russian ruling class went into emigration; in May 1920 the Red Army drives the Poles out of Kiev: in July the “reds” arrive in front of Warsaw, but are driven back by a great Polish counter-offensive. Peace between Poland and Russia was signed on 18 March 1921. A large part of the old Russian ruling class went into emigration; in May 1920 the Red Army drives the Poles out of Kiev: in July the “reds” arrive in front of Warsaw, but are driven back by a great Polish counter-offensive. On March 18, 1921, peace was signed between Poland and Russia. A large part of the old Russian ruling class went into emigration; in May 1920 the Red Army drives the Poles out of Kiev: in July the “reds” arrive in front of Warsaw, but are driven back by a great Polish counter-offensive. On March 18, 1921, peace was signed between Poland and Russia.
In the meantime, the Third International was organized in the congress held in Moscow from 2 to 6 March 1919, grouping in broad outline the extreme left fractions of the Second International. The so-called “war communism”, to which the Soviet regime had recourse during the foreign intervention and the war with the “whites” had seriously disorganized agricultural and industrial production. In fact, in the summer of 1921 the so-called New Economic Policy was promulgated (nep ; v.), Which partially and temporarily re-established the freedom of trade and certain capitalist prerogatives.
Lenin died on January 21, 1924 and upon his death a violent discussion arose in the Bolshevik party on the possibility of building socialism in a single country. This struggle, personified in the front line by the names of Stalin (v.) And Trotsky (v.), Ends with the victory of the former. By July 1923, Russia was transformed into the “Union of Soviet Socialist Republics”. From year to year the military organization is strengthened, especially since the political situation in the Far East becomes tense. The first and then the second “five-year plan” began in 1928, the aim of which was to build a powerful socialist industry in a predominantly agrarian and largely primitive country and to organize all agriculture on a collective basis.