Foreign economic relations of the Philippines are focused on the United States, Japan, China (including Hong Kong), the EU countries, Australia and, to a lesser extent, the countries of Southeast Asia. Foreign direct investment comes mainly from US and Japanese multinationals. After the crisis of 1997-98 they dropped significantly. Assistance (loans and credits) is provided by international financial organizations – the IMF, the World Bank Group, the Asian Development Bank, as well as governments of individual states and private institutions.
The growth rate of foreign trade outstrips the growth rate of GDP. In foreign trade relations (goods and services) of the Philippines, trade with the USA, Japan, China, EU countries, Australia prevails, and from Southeast Asian countries – with Singapore. The export of goods and services (in 2002 it was equal to 35.2 billion US dollars, or almost half of the country’s GDP) was dominated by the export of goods. From Ser. 1980s electronic components occupy the first place in merchandise exports: in 2001, out of 31.2 billion US dollars, they accounted for 16.8 billion. Among traditional exports, its largest items are: coconut palm products, abaca fiber, raw sugar, copper concentrates. Merchandise imports in 2002 amounted to $35.5 billion; half of its value was for capital equipment and 1/10 for fuel and energy raw materials, mainly oil.
As a result of the monetary and financial crisis of 1997–98, the national currency was seriously devalued. The peso exchange rate against the US dollar has significantly exceeded the pre-crisis level. 1 US dollar equals 53.5 pesos (June 2003).
Science and culture of the Philippines
In the field of science, the National Research Council of the Philippines and the National Science Administration are the most important coordinating centers. From Ser. 1970s the Philippine Center for Basic Research at the University of the Philippines operates, coordinating the scientific activities of various universities and other scientific institutions. The Center participates in the development of state programs for the development of science. The main sources of funding for science are the state budget and assistance from the governments of individual countries and international organizations. Practical research is carried out mainly in large corporations. Leading universities are the State University of the Philippines, private ones are St. Thomas University, Manila Ateneo, Silliman University. Science lacks funds to finance it.
According to searchforpublicschools, education is led by the Ministry of Education and Culture. State institutions of higher learning are governed by Councils of Regents. Primary education is public, compulsory and free. The secondary school is 95% private, the higher school is 80%. The lack of state funding of the education system hinders its development. Almost 84% of government spending on education goes to primary school, approx. 15% – to the secondary and 1% – to the higher. In 2002, about 15 million children aged 7-12 studied in elementary school, 6 million in secondary school, and St. 2.5 million
For a long period (almost 400 years), the Philippines was the object of Westernization, which had a profound impact on the development of spiritual culture, in which foreign cultural values brought from the West were partially rejected, partially assimilated by the Filipinos in accordance with their worldview and aesthetic experience. The modern spiritual culture of the Philippines is marked by the growth of “cultural nationalism”, the search for identity and cultural identity of the Filipinos. The Philippine Constitution defines national culture as “unity in diversity”. The state encourages freedom of creativity, supports cultural figures and creative associations through a system of grants, scholarships, etc. The founder of Philippine literature is H. Rizal (1861–96), writer, essayist, scientist, sculptor, national hero of the Philippines, whose name is known outside the country. His literary works and journalism had a decisive influence on the development of the national identity of the Filipinos, although he wrote mainly in Spanish. Modern Philippine literature is rich in names, genres, trends. English-language and Tagalog-language literature stands out in terms of large-scale and depth of subject matter, highly artistic style (literature in regional languages is also developing). Many works of writers and poets writing in English and Tagalog are published in the USA and Europe, including Russia. Big names in English-language prose are N.V. Gonzalez, Nick Joaquin, poets H. Lansang Jr., R. Tinio, F. Cruz and many others. The largest figure in Tagalog-language literature is the poet and short story writer A.V. Hernandez (1903-70), on whose works generations of modern writers were brought up. The Spaniards also noted the unusual giftedness of the Filipinos in the visual arts, their special sense of color (the colors of the tropics). Visual arts of the Philippines 20th century. up to the present day, it absorbs a variety of influences: from academicism, realism, impressionism, abstractionism, various kinds of modern avant-garde movements to a kind of Philippine primitivism. The most famous names in the visual arts of the Philippines: artists C. Francisco, V. Manansala, A. Luz, Anita Magsaysay-Ho, sculptors N. Abueva, S. Saprid and others. The history of the country is reflected in the architecture of Philippine cities: each era left its symbols (Spanish baroque of the 16th-17th centuries, neoclassicism of the early 20th century, constructivism of the 1930s, modern high-rise buildings of business districts, for example, Makati in Greater Manila). The most famous Filipino architects of the 1970-90s. – L. Loksin, S. Consio.