Shandong Province is located on the coast of the Yellow Sea in the lower reaches of the Yellow River. It is considered one of the birthplaces of Chinese civilization, the place where ceramics, porcelain and silk appeared.
Capital of Jinan Province has a long history, and, according to Chinese experts, its age is more than 4000 years. The PRC government has given it the status of “City of Ancient Culture and History”. Not far from it, artifacts of the Chinese cultures Xihe (red-brown pottery, 8400-7300 BC) and Longshan (black pottery, 4600-4000 BC) were found. The ruins of the most ancient Chinese city with a total area of 200 km2, the remains of mountain terraces and a well from the times of the Wu civilization, the Buddhist temple of Wu, sections of the wall of the periods of the Qin and Qi dynasties, the ancestral temple of the Han era, the oldest building that has survived to our time in China (I century BC). The city has received the name “Capital of springs” due to 72 thermal springs flowing in its vicinity.
According to Allpubliclibraries, Qingdao is a former German colony. Neo-Gothic houses, churches and churches built at the end of the last century testify to the colonial past of Qingdao, which gives the city a special flavor. The emblem of the city is the Qingdao Dam. Of the sights of the city, it is worth seeing the Maritime Museum with an aquarium in Lusun Park. The park itself is located on a rocky platform that breaks off at the very water, between two wonderful beaches. Also of interest are the TV tower with a beautiful view of the city and the sea, the Zhan Chao pier, the zoo, the Tsintao brewery. In Qingdao harbor is the island of Little Qingdao or Lute Island, where many evergreens grow. Here you can find sculptures, underground grottoes, beautiful landscapes, a photo exhibition, a museum of history. 40 km from the city is Mount Laoshan – one of the shrines of China. Densely overgrown with forest, it belongs to the landscape areas of national importance and is a favorite place of pilgrimage for adherents of Taoism.
The temple and tomb of Confucius are located in the city of Qufu. The temple was built in 478 BC. More than 100 buildings have survived to this day, surrounding 9 symmetrical courtyards, and the complex itself is an outstanding example of a large-scale temple structure, second in size only to the Forbidden City in Beijing.. Confucius’ estate is located to the east of the temple. It has over 480 rooms and halls. In addition to being of great architectural interest, the building contains important archives and a number of other valuable relics. The tomb is actually a cemetery where Confucius himself and more than 100 thousand of his descendants are buried. It is the largest and best preserved family cemetery in the world, and also has the longest history. It grows 10,000 old cypresses and pines and stands over 4,000 stone slabs.
Holy Mountain Taishan (Taishan) rises 1545 m above sea level and 1400 m above the surrounding plain. This mountain has a 5,000-year history of worship and has also been the site of Fengshan ceremonies, during which Chinese rulers performed sacrifices. A large number of stone carvings were found here, including 800 stone tablets and about 1000 inscriptions. Some poems were written by emperors and poets. Taishan’s main cultural attractions are the mountain temples of Daimiao and Bixia. The mountain is also known for its rich flora and fauna. The most picturesque places are Yuhuang and Riguan peaks.
In the province of Shandong, you can admire a unique spectacle – the confluence of the Yellow River. to the Yellow Sea. The island in the estuary of the river is home to many birds, for the observation of which special tours are organized.
SHANSI PROVINCE (SHAANXI).
There are 72 tombs of emperors on the territory of Shaanxi province, which testifies to the exceptionally important place of this region in the social, economic and cultural life of China in different periods of its rich history. Huangdi tomb, funeral statues of warriors and horses, Famensi temple, forest of memorial steles, Shaanxi History Museum, ancient city wall are included in the golden treasury of monuments of history and culture of China. The tomb of Qinshihuang, as well as the eighth wonder of the world – the funeral statues of warriors and horses – are listed by UNESCO on the World Cultural Heritage List.
Xi’an , the provincial capital, served as the capital for 11 imperial dynasties. Today it is one of the most attractive places for tourists in China thanks to the famous terracotta army, which includes 10 thousand figures of foot soldiers, archers armed with real weapons, and war chariots. Other attractions in Xi’an include the Old City Walls, the Muslim Quarter with the Grand Mosque, the Daqien Temple, the Tomb of Emperor Qinshi Huang, and the Banpo Village, which gives a glimpse of life in the Stone Age. The city has Lake Huaqingchi with a hot spring Lishan, in the waters of which you can take a bath. There is a forest park on the slope of Lishan Mountain, where you can see not only picturesque landscapes, but also historical monuments. Every year in Xi’an in September, the Silk Road Festival is held, the program of which includes a performance with torches, a concert of songs and dances, folk performances, a performance with gongs and drums, and exhibitions of traditional culture.
Mount Huashan is located 120 km east of Xi’an. This is one of the five sacred mountains of China, especially revered by the Taoists. A 15-kilometer path leads to the top of a giant granite cliff, in places it turns into steps carved into the rock. At the top, the trail bypasses all four main peaks of Huashan. It takes six to nine hours from the Huashan village at the foot of the mountain to the summit, but it is possible to stay overnight both in the village itself and in fairly modest hotels along the route up.
Huangling is located 200 kilometers north of Xi’an. Near the city on the Qiaoshan hill is the alleged tomb of the Yellow Sovereign, Huang Di. In Chinese mythology, he is a cultural hero who taught people how to make tools, weapons, carts, boats, pave roads and extract metals. Huang Di is considered the Father of the Nation, he is one of the five sovereigns who ruled China 5 thousand years ago. Yan’an, 270 km north of Xi’an, is a small town with a population of 40,000 people. However, it is the main place of pilgrimage for fans of Mao Zedong and the communist revolution in China.
In 1936 – 1947. the city served as the headquarters and main base of the communist forces. Landmarks in Yan’an include the Revolutionary Forces Headquarters Building, where the first meetings of the Central Committee of the Communist Party of China were held; labyrinths dug in the loess soil where Mao Zedong, Zhu De, Zhou Enlai lived and worked; Museum of the Yan’an Revolution with a rich collection of old military uniforms, weapons, photographs and posters. Among other interesting places of the town, not related to the revolutionary past, it is worth mentioning the Precious Pagoda (Bao Ta), built during the Song Dynasty, and the Cave of Ten Thousand Buddhas (Wanfo Dong), carved into the sandstone rock above the Yulin River.