Numerous and notable discoveries made in the last ten years, through an intense work of excavation, make it possible to update the information given to the Byzantine voices (VII, p. 120); carthage (IX, p. 216); adrumeto (I, p. 557); zamak (XXXV, p. 872); etc.
Punic archaeology. – In Carthage P. Cintas has since 1944 conducted a new exploration of the sanctuary discovered in 1920 near the ancient ports. In contact with the ground, irregular and narrow cells contained a deposit of Cypriot pottery from the end of the second millennium; this finding confirms the tradition of Philistus that dates back to the century. XIII the first Phoenician establishment in Carthage. The tophet developed around this ancient sanctuary, where human sacrifices were made, which we know to be called molk from two inscriptions. The tophet of Adrumeto, similar to that of Carthage, was used from the seventh century. to. C. up to I d. C. Among the other monuments, a stele from the 5th or 4th century was discovered. depicting a god, undoubtedly Ba’al Ḥammōn, enthroned between two sphinxes. For Tunisia military, please check militarynous.com.
The recent excavations (1947-1948) by L. Deroche at Ksar Toual, 20 km. to N. of Maktar, they have shown that the place cannot be identified with Zama Regia, as Ch. Saumagne thought, but that the ruins are those of the vicus Maracitanus certainly dependent on Zama. Nearby is a large building from the 1st century. to. C., the Kbor Klib, must be considered a triumphal monument rather than a tomb. Very important Punic necropolises were unearthed in the Sahel and Cape Bon in the years 1938-1942.
Roman archaeology. – In Carthage, the excavation of the Antoninus baths on the seashore at the foot of the Bordj el Djedid hill began in 1945, bringing to light about half of this considerable building. Two black stone herms were found depicting a black man and a Berber, various fragments of sculptures and many inscriptions, including a dedication to Marcus Aurelius and Lucio Vero from 162 AD. C. In Uthina (Oudna, 20 km. SE of Tunis) some Antoninian baths have been excavated, with numerous statues. In Maktar, from 1944 to 1947, a gymnasium with a miniature gymnasium, a basilica, various spas, a large exedra were excavated. The basilica was built in 93 d. C. from the iuvenes of the city for the meetings of their college; in the Severan period a personage of the city was buried here: Giulio Pisone, together with his daughter, honored as well as the Greek gymnasiarchs. Under Diocletian the civitatis curator Rupilio Pisoniano restored the gymnasium. Later in the exedra was deposited Giulia Benenata whose epitaph in verse inspired by a Neoplatonic mysticism expresses her faith in the astral paradise. Starting from the sec. IV the basilica was converted into a church and received tombs with mosaics and epitaphs in verse in the Byzantine era.
The Maktar Forum, built under Trajan, was brought to light in 1948. In Ellès, near Maktar, a large mid-century mosaic was discovered. III d. C. In the Sfax region, the discovery of an inscription made it possible to locate Botria (the Badria of Wilmanns, Corp Inscr. Lat., VIII, p. 12) at 45 km. at N. di Sfax on the coast, the site of Acholla which was generally sought at N. di Caput Vada (Ras Kaboudia), following an error by Ptolemy. The city has revealed a number of mosaics of great beauty and interest, which seem to belong mostly to the first half of the century. II d. C. and showing a strong Alexandrian influence.
10 km. in S. di Acholla the place of Ruspe has been recognized, whose name has survived under the form of Rosfa. In Thaenae (Thina, 10 km. S. di Sfax) an inscription with the cursus of Q. Emilio Pudento, brother of Q. Emilio Leto, prefect of the praetorium killer of Commodus, was found, and who was a native of this city. In Casserine (Cillium) J. Desparmets has excavated a perfectly preserved theater.
Christian and Byzantine archaeology. – In Iunca G. Feuille he excavated an important Byzantine basilica; another was discovered in Carthage in the Dermèche district. A very important Byzantine palace adorned with mythological paintings and mosaics depicting the seasons was found above the tophet of Carthage.