Category Archives: Europe

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Europe Prehistory

The unitary culture, the Mediterranean culture, which characterized the Roman Empire even in its late stages, had definitely collapsed around 1500. The Ottoman Empire’s expansion across the Balkans closed this area of ​​European influence for several centuries. Something similar was the case with the vast Russian territory, which since the Mongol conquest in the 1200’s.… Read More »

Sweden Old History

Sweden is an independent nation in Northern Europe. With the capital city of Stockholm, Sweden 2020 population is estimated at 10,099,276 according to countryaah. A unified kingdom with a common king has existed in the landscapes of the Great Lakes in the south since the 1100s. From the 16th century, a state with more central… Read More »

Switzerland Old History

Switzerland is an independent nation in Western Europe. With the capital city of Bern, Switzerland 2020 population is estimated at 8,654,633 according to countryaah. The people in three areas at the foot of the Gotthard Mass joined forces in an oath of union in 1291 to protect themselves from outside abuse and claims. It is… Read More »

Turkey Old History

Turkey is an independent nation in Western Asia. With the capital city of Ankara, Turkey 2020 population is estimated at 84,339,078 according to countryaah. Turkish people who penetrated the ancient Byzantine Empire in the early Middle Ages created in the 1300s the Ottoman Empire, which grew into one of the most powerful empires of world… Read More »

Ukraine Old History

Ukraine is an independent nation in Eastern Europe. With the capital city of Kiev, Ukraine 2020 population is estimated at 43,733,773 according to countryaah. In what is today Northern Ukraine was founded at the end of the 8th century Kiev Empire which became a powerful principality. From the 13th century, the area came first under… Read More »

United Kingdom Old History

United Kingdom is an independent nation in Northern Europe. With the capital city of London, United Kingdom 2020 population is estimated at 67,886,022 according to countryaah. Britain’s early history was troubled. In the 400s the Roman rulers fell and the islands were invaded by Germanic peoples. The Normans took over in the year 1066 and… Read More »

Latvia Old History

Latvia is an independent nation in Northern Europe. With the capital city of Riga, Latvia 2020 population is estimated at 1,886,209 according to countryaah. The first known Baltic people, before the birth of Christ, traded amber to the Mediterranean. Riga was founded in 1201 by German crusaders, who subjugated present-day Latvia, where the peasant population… Read More »

Liechtenstein Old History

Liechtenstein is an independent nation in Western Europe. With the capital city of Vaduz, Liechtenstein 2020 population is estimated at 38,139 according to countryaah. The county of Liechtenstein was formed in 1719 when an Austrian prince family named Liechtenstein bought two counties that were merged. The area was part of the vast German-Roman Empire. The… Read More »

Lithuania Old History

Lithuania is an independent nation in Northern Europe. With the capital city of Vilnius, Lithuania 2020 population is estimated at 2,722,300 according to countryaah. About 4,000 years ago, Baltic tribes settled around the southeastern Baltic Sea. In the Middle Ages, the population fought against German Crusaders, but in 1386 Christianity was adopted through a union… Read More »

Luxembourg Old History

Luxembourg is an independent nation in Western Europe. With the capital city of Luxembourg, Luxembourg 2020 population is estimated at 625,989 according to countryaah. Today’s Luxembourg, for many centuries, alternated under French, German, Spanish and Austrian rulers. At the Vienna Congress in 1815, Luxembourg was granted Grand Duchy status and in 1867 the country’s independence… Read More »

Macedonia Old History

North Macedonia is an independent nation in Southern Europe. With the capital city of Skopje, North Macedonia 2020 population is estimated at 2,022,558 according to countryaah. Throughout history many different peoples have contested the power of what is today Northern Macedonia. At the end of the 1300s, the Ottoman Turks conquered the area. Only during… Read More »

Malta Old History

Malta is an independent nation in Southern Europe. With the capital city of Valletta, Malta 2020 population is estimated at 441,554 according to countryaah. Findings of animal skeletons show that there was probably a land bridge between Malta and Sicily about 6,000 years ago. It was also from Sicily that the first people came to… Read More »

Moldova Old History

Moldova is an independent nation in Eastern Europe. With the capital city of Chisinau, Moldova 2020 population is estimated at 4,033,974 according to countryaah. The area that is today Moldova was the core country of the historic region of Bessarabia, which was incorporated into the Principality of Moldova during the 15th century. A century later,… Read More »

Monaco Old History

Monaco is an independent nation in Western Europe. With the capital city of Monaco, Monaco 2020 population is estimated at 39,253 according to countryaah. The Principality arose in 1297 when the Grimaldi genus occupied the area. It later ended up in rounds under various foreign rulers. Monaco became independent in 1861, though closely related to… Read More »

Montenegro Old History

Montenegro is an independent nation in Southern Europe. With the capital city of Podgorica, Montenegro 2020 population is estimated at 628,077 according to countryaah. Many people have fought for the dominion of what is today Montenegro, but from the 1300s the residents resisted all attempts at conquest and were long ruled by native Orthodox bishops.… Read More »

Netherlands Old History

Netherlands is an independent nation in Western Europe. With the capital city of Amsterdam, Netherlands 2020 population is estimated at 17,134,883 according to countryaah. The area of ​​today’s Netherlands has been conquered by a number of different people over time. In the middle of the 16th century, Calvinists gained a great influence and, among others,… Read More »

Norway Old History

Norway is an independent nation in Northern Europe. With the capital city of Oslo, Norway 2020 population is estimated at 5,421,252 according to countryaah. In the 11th century, Olav Haraldsson laid the foundation for the United Kingdom of Norway. In 1380, a Danish-Norwegian union was established, which was ruled from Copenhagen and came to last… Read More »

Poland Old History

Poland is an independent nation in Eastern Europe. With the capital city of Warsaw, Poland 2020 population is estimated at 37,846,622 according to countryaah. A heyday began in the 1300s when the Jagellonian royal family came to power. The nobility was strengthened at the expense of the royal power during the Lublin Union between Poland… Read More »

Portugal Old History

Portugal is an independent nation in Southern Europe. With the capital city of Lisbon, Portugal 2020 population is estimated at 10,196,720 according to countryaah. The area that today constitutes Portugal was united in the 13th century under a ruler. Over time, the Kingdom developed into a major shipping nation and colonial power. In 1903 the… Read More »

Romania Old History

Romania is an independent nation in Eastern Europe. With the capital city of Bucharest, Romania 2020 population is estimated at 19,237,702 according to countryaah. Romania has had historical conflicts with Hungary about Transylvania in the west and with Russia about Bessarabia in the east. Modern Romania was founded since the Principality of Moldova and Valakia… Read More »

Russia Old History

Russia is an independent nation in Eastern Europe. With the capital city of Moscow, Russia 2020 population is estimated at 145,934,473 according to countryaah. The first state formation in what later became Russian territory occurred in the 11th century BC in Central Asia, the Caucasus and the Black Sea. In the 850s AD, the eastern… Read More »

San Marino Old History

San Marino is an independent nation in Southern Europe. With the capital city of San Marino, San Marino 2020 population is estimated at 33,942 according to countryaah. San Marino’s domestic policy has a tradition of cross-border cooperation. Government coalitions between right and left have been commonplace, and political issues have often been resolved by consensus… Read More »

Serbia Old History

Serbia is an independent nation in Southern Europe. With the capital city of Belgrade, Serbia 2020 population is estimated at 8,737,382 according to countryaah. In the Balkans there was a powerful Serbian empire with the center of Kosovo from the 11th century. From the end of the 1300s, this came to obey the Ottoman Turks… Read More »

Slovakia Old History

Slovakia is an independent nation in Eastern Europe. With the capital city of Bratislava, Slovakia 2020 population is estimated at 5,459,653 according to countryaah. During much of the country’s older history, Slovakia was ruled by Hungarian rulers. Since the collapse of the Habsburg Empire in 1918, Slovaks and Czechs formed a common state: Czechoslovakia, which… Read More »

Slovenia Old History

Slovenia is an independent nation in Southern Europe. With the capital city of Ljubljana, Slovenia 2020 population is estimated at 2,078,949 according to countryaah. Today’s Slovenia was ruled by Östrom when the Catholic Church started winning over the Slovenes in the 7th century. The Roman-Roman emperor took over the area, which in the 13th century… Read More »

Spain Old History

Spain is an independent nation in Southern Europe. With the capital city of Madrid, Spain 2020 population is estimated at 46,754,789 according to countryaah. The marriage of 1479 between the regents Isabella and Ferdinand united the kingdom of Spain. At the same time, Columbus “discovered” America, which laid the foundation for Spain’s 300 years as… Read More »

Bulgaria Old History

Bulgaria is an independent nation in Eastern Europe. With the capital city of Sofia, Bulgaria 2020 population is estimated at 6,948,456 according to countryaah. A Turkish rider, the Bulgarians, immigrated to Thrace in the 600s from the steppes north of the Black Sea. The Bulgarians adopted Orthodox Christianity and established the Kingdom, but were occupied… Read More »

Croatia Old History

Croatia is an independent nation in Southern Europe. With the capital city of Zagreb, Croatia 2020 population is estimated at 4,105,278 according to countryaah. Most of Croatia was for a long time part of larger state formations, and for centuries, mainly obeyed Hungarian and Austro-Hungarian supremacy. At the end of the First World War in… Read More »

Cyprus Old History

Cyprus is an independent nation in Western Asia. With the capital city of Nicosia, Cyprus 2020 population is estimated at 1,207,370 according to countryaah. With its location on the crossroads between Africa, Asia and Europe, Cyprus has throughout history exerted traction on merchants and conquerors from different angles. Archaeologists have found that humans lived in… Read More »

Czech Republic Old History

Czech Republic is an independent nation in Eastern Europe. With the capital city of Prague, Czech Republic 2020 population is estimated at 10,708,992 according to countryaah. Bohemia and Moravia are among the first populated areas of Europe. The Grand Moorish empire that was formed in the 8th century also included parts of Bohemia. Extensive German… Read More »